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Federalism in Germany, Italy, and the European Union: History, Characteristics, and Perspectives


Federalism is always torn between the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity. Defining the federal structure of a country by finding the welfare-maximizing amount and design of government layers is challenging. Thereby, the financial endowment of different layers of government which they need to fulfill their respective tasks is an important aspect. European countries have chosen quite different federal designs to address the question of an optimal degree of fiscal decentralization. The aim of this paper is to analyze these different approaches for Germany, Italy, and the European Union. Parallels can be found in that all the three entities share a form of institutional asymmetry, a kind of fiscal bailout system, and a sort of fiscal equalization scheme.

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A Proposed Knowledge Management System in SOFCON: Saudi Arabia Perspectives

, H. F. and Lee, G. (2005), “Impact of organizational learning and knowledge management factors on e-business adoption”, Management Decision , Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 171-188 Linderman, K., et. (2004), “Integrating quality management practices with knowledge creation processes”, Journal of Operations Management , Vol. 22, pp. 589-607 Miller, (1999), “Building the ultimate resource”, Management Review , Vol. 8, No. 2 Nonaka, I. and Konno, N. (2000), “The concept of “ba”: Building a foundation for knowledge creation”, in Hermans, J. (Ed.), The Knowledge

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Why the Microlevel Determines the Future of the Social Market Economy?

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Reciprocity in the Civil Economy: a Critical Assessment

Grundlage der modernen Wohlfahrtsökonomik, Schwartz, Göttingen, 1964. Borzaga C., Defourny J. (Eds.), The emergence of social enterprise. Routledge studies in the management of voluntary and non-profit organizations, Routledge, London, 2001. Bowie N.E., The paradox of profit, In: Wright N.D. (Ed.), Papers on the ethics of administration, Brigham Young University, New York, 97-120, 1988. Bruni L., Reciprocity, altruism and the civil society: in praise of heterogeneity. Routledge advances in game theory, 4th ed., Routledge, London, 2008. Bruni L

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Service Recovery Strategies versus Customers’ Expectations, Race for Sustainability: a Qualitative Study on Micro Brands

References [1] Agbonifoh, B.A. and Edoreh, P.E. (1986). Consumer awareness and complaining behaviour, European Journal of Marketing, 20(7), pp. 43-49. [2] Andreassen T.W. (2000). Antecedents to satisfaction with service recovery, European Journal of Marketing, 34(1/2), pp. 156-175. [3] Arneson, H. and Ekberg, K. (2006). Measuring empowerment in working life: a review, Work, 26(1), pp. 37-46. [4] Avolio, B.J., Zhu, W., Koh, W. and Bhatia, P. (2004). Transformational leadership and organizational

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Permission-based Leadership and Change Management in Hong Kong's Nongovernment Organisations

., & Forrester, P. (2003). Managing planned and emergent change within an operations management environment. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 23 No. 5, 546-564. Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership . Thousand Oaks: Sage. Beer, M., & Nohria, N. (2000). Cracking the code of change. Harvard Business Review , May/June, 133-141. Behn, B. K., DeVries, D. D., & Lin, J. (2010). The determinants of transparency in nonprofit organizations: An exploratory study

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The Impact of Destination Image on Tourists’ Satisfaction and Loyalty in the Context of Domestic Tourism

involvement, and satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 51(3), pp. 342-356. [43] Prebensen, N. (2007). Exploring Tourists’ Image of a Distant Destination, Tourism Management, 28(3), pp. 747-756. [44] Qu, H., Kim, L. and Im, H. (2011). A model of destination branding: Integrating the concepts of the branding and destination image, Tourism Management, 32(3), pp. 465-476. [45] Rajesh R., (2013). Impact of Tourist Perceptions, Destination Image and Tourist Satisfaction on Destination Loyalty:A Conceptual Model, Revista de

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European Union Integration Impact on Romanian SMEs Performance

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Organizational Culture and Scale Development: Methodological Challenges and Future Directions

References Ahmed, P. K. (1998). Culture and climate for innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 1 (1), 30-43. Alexander, M. (1978). Organizational norms opinionnaire. The 1978 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators, University Associates, La Jolla, CA , 81-88. Alvesson, M. (2012). Understanding organizational culture . (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Amsa, P. (1986). Organizational culture and work group behaviour: An empirical study. Journal of Management Studies, 23 (3), 347-362. Assaf, A., & Cvelbar, K. L

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Führungsethik Sozialer Marktwirtschaft Ein systematischer Leitfaden für eine Mikro-Marko-Perspektive

(or: Why Culture Matters more than Codes), Journal of Business Ethics 45 (3), S. 243-256. [43] Smith, Adam (1926/1994), Theorie der ethischen Gefühle, Hamburg. [44] Stutzer, Alois et al. (2010), Normative und positive Grundlagen der Glücksforschung. Antrag zu einem bei der DFG eingereichten Forschungsprojekt, Münster/Basel (nicht veröffentlicht). [45] Ulrich. Peter (1999). Führungsethik. In: W. Korff u.a. (Hg.): Handbuch der Wirtschaftsethik, Bd. 4: Ausgewählte Handlungsfelder, Gütersloh, S. 230-248. [46] Ulrich, Peter (2008), Integrative

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