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Studies of Changing Societies

The Journal of Olga Guzhva

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Ulla Broms, Karoliina Koskenvuo, Lauri H. Sillanmäki, Kari J. Mattila and Markku Koskenvuo

ABSTRACT

AIMS - Smoking initiation during childhood or adolescence is strongly associated with friends’ smoking. Likewise, adverse living conditions increase the likelihood of future deviant behaviour. We examine whether smoking by a best friend and family members during school years as well as adverse childhood experiences are associated with smoking in adulthood. DATA AND DESIGN - We have analysed the responses of Finnish working-aged respondents in 1998 (N=25901) and 2003 (N=20773) to questions on the smoking status of friends and family members during school years as well as their answers on a six-item scale of childhood adversities. A case-control study design was used to compare current cigarette smokers (1998 and 2003) to non-smokers (1998 and 2003). RESULTS - If a best friend during school years was a smoker, the subject’s odds ratio (OR) of being a smoker in adulthood was 4.43 among females and 3.91 among males compared to those with a non-smoking best friend in multivariate models adjusted for smoking by family members during school years and by six childhood adversities. These associations did not differ by age. Smoking in adulthood was associated with childhood adversities, most strongly with parental divorce or separation during the subjects’ school years. CONCLUSION - Smoking by a best friend and parental divorce or separation during school years appears to be a strong factor of smoking in later life.

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Robert Edgren, Sari Castrén, Markus Jokela and Anne H. Salonen

.thl.fi/documents/10531/95613/Raportti%25202011%252016.pdf. Black, D. W., Shaw, M., McCormick, B., & Allen, J. (2013). Pathological gambling: Relationship to obesity, self-reported chronic medical conditions, poor lifestyle choices, and impaired quality of life. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54, 97-104. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A Pathways Model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97(5), 487-499. Blinn-Pike, L., Worthy, S. L., & Jonkman, J. N. (2010). Adolescent gambling: A review of an emerging field of research

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Melissa Kelly, Nelli Ruotsalainen, Ibrahima Amadou Dia, Jenny Ingridsdotter and I-An Gao

References Crenshaw, K 1991, ‘Mapping the margins: intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color’, Stanford Law Review, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1241-1299. Davis, AY 1983, Women, race & class , Vintage, New York. Hooks, B 1984, Feminist theory from margin to center , South End, Boston. Hübinette, T & Lundström, C 2014, ‘Three phases of hegemonic whiteness: understanding racial temporalities in Sweden’, Social Identities, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 423-437. Mohanty, CT, Russo, A & Torres, L 1991, Third world

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Elena Maria Emadi

References Alfar, C. L. 2003. Fantasies of Female Evil: The Dynamics of Gender and Power in Shakespearean Tragedy. Newark: University of Delaware Press. Clausson, N. ‘The Case of the Anormalous Narrative: Gothic “Surmise” and Trigonometric “Proof” in Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Musgrave Ritual’ in Victorian Newsletter . Spring 2005, Issue 107. Doyle, A. C. 1994. The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes . W. W. Robson (ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Doyle, A. C. 1915. The Hound of the

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Stjepan Pticar

References Abrams, R. (2004) Six-Week Start-Up, Planning Shop, Palo Alto, 33 Accounting Concepts and Conventions, Accounting Word, On line: http://www.accountingworld.com/2011/10/accounting-concepts-and-conventions_4670.html Brodsky, N. (2009) Our Irrational Fear of Numbers, Inc., 33 Davis, E. (1988) Dodging the Bullet, Venture, 78 Drucker, P. F. (1992) Inovacije i poduzetnistvo. [Innovation and entrepreneurship] Globus. Zagreb, 122 Gaunsel, B.B. (2005) Toward a

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Constantin Severin

References Bohm, D. (1992). Thought as a System . London: Routledge. Chomsky, N. (1991). Problems of Knowledge and Freedom . New York: Pantheon Books. Codrescu, A. (2001). interview by Lidia Vianu, www.codrescu.com . Connor, S. (1999). Cultura postmoderna . O introducere in teoriile contemporane. Trad. Mihaela Oniga. Bucuresti: Meridiane, Bucuresti. Curci, Luca: http://www.lucacurci.com/ Deleuze, G., Guattari, F. (1998). Ce este filosofia? . Trad. Magdalena Marculescu-Cojocea. Targoviste : Editura Pandora. Foarta, S

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Jonathan Mendilow

, Alexis de, 1955. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. New York: Doubleday. Van Klaveren, Jacob, 1989. “The Concept of Corruption”. Arnold J. Heidenheimer, Michael Johnston, Victor LeVine (eds), Political Corruption: a Handbook. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, pp. 25-8. Warren, Mark E., 2006. “Political Corruption as Duplicitous Exclusion”, Political Science and Politics, vol. XXXIX, pp. 803-7. -------, 2004. “What Does Corruption Mean in Democracy?” American Journal of Political Science, Vol 48, pp. 328-43. Wertheimer, Fred, Susan W. Manes, 1994

Open access

Jonathan Mendilow

, 1955. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. New York: Doubleday. Van Klaveren, Jacob, 1989. “The Concept of Corruption”. Arnold J. Heidenheimer, Michael Johnston, Victor LeVine (eds), Political Corruption: a Handbook. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, pp. 25-8. Warren, Mark E., 2006. “Political Corruption as Duplicitous Exclusion”, Political Science and Politics, vol. XXXIX, pp. 803-7. 2004. “What Does Corruption Mean in Democracy?” American Journal of Political Science, Vol 48, pp. 328-43. Wertheimer, Fred, Susan W. Manes, 1994. “Campaign Finance Reform

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Ivan Katzarski

. Walter, E. V. (1973). “Pauperism and Illth: An Archaeology of Social Policy.” Sociological Analysis , 34. 4: 239-254. Wjuniski, B. S., and R. G. Fernández. (2009). “The Athenian Economy in Light of the Welfare State: Karl Polanyi's Work in Perspective.” Journal of Economic Issues , 43. 3: 587-606. Woodard, C. (1962). “Reality and Social Reform: The Transition from Laissez-Faire to the Welfare State.” The Yale Law Journal , 72. 2: 286-328. Woodburn, J. (1982). “Egalitarian Soceties.” Man (N. S.), 17. 3: 431-451. Woodburn, J. (1998