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B. Dybowski, A. Kiełbus and R. Jarosz

References [1] A. Turowska, J. Adamiec, Creep resistance of WE43 magnesium alloy joints, Solid State Phenomena 191 177-182 (2012). [2] ASM Speciality Handbook.: Magnesium and magnesium alloys. ASM International, 1999. [3] C. Antion, P. Donnadieu, F. Perrard, A. Deschamps, C. Tassin, A. Pisch: Hardening precipitation in a Mg-4Y-3RE alloy, Acta Materialia 51, 5335-5348 (2003). [4] J.G. Wang, L.M. Hsiung, T.G. Nieh, M. Mabuchi: Creep of a heat treated Mg-4Y-3RE alloy, Materials Science and

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B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała, J. Kasińska, M. Wróbel and M. Balicki

The article presents the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast duplex stainless steel type 23Cr-5Mn-2Ni-3Mo. It has been shown that the structure of the tested cast steel is composed of ferrite enriched in Cr, Mo and Si, and austenite enriched in Mn and Ni. In the initial state, at the interface, precipitates rich in Cr and Mo were present. A high carbon content (0.08%C) in this cast steel indicates that probably those were complex carbides of the M23C6 type and/or σ phase. Studies have proved that the solution annealing conducted at 1060°C was not sufficient for their full dissolution, while at the solutioning temperature of 1150°C, the structure of the tested material was composed of ferrite and austenite.

Partial replacement of Ni by two other austenite-forming elements, which are Mn and N, has ensured obtaining mechanical properties comparable to cast duplex 24Cr-5Ni-3Mo steel of the second generation. Basing on the results of static tensile test, a twice higher yield strength was proved to be obtained, compared to the cast austenitic 18Cr-9Ni and 19Cr-11Ni-2Mo steel commonly used in the foundry industry. In addition to the high yield strength (YS = 547 ÷ 572 MPa), the tested cast steel was characterized by the following mechanical properties: UTS = 731 ÷ 750 MPa, EL = 21 ÷ 29.5%, R.A. = 43 ÷ 52%, hardness 256 ÷ 266 HB. Fractures formed in mechanical tests showed ductile-brittle character.

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M. Musztyfaga-Staszuk, L.A. Dobrzanski, S. Rusz and M. Staszuk


The aim of the paper was to apply the newly developed instruments ‘Corescan’ and ‘Sherescan’ in order to measure the essential parameters of producing solar cells in comparison with the standard techniques. The standard technique named the Transmission Line Method (TLM) is one way to monitor contacting process to measure contact resistance locally between the substrate and metallization. Nowadays, contact resistance is measured over the whole photovoltaic cell using Corescanner instrument. The Sherescan device in comparison with standard devices gives a possibility to measure the sheet resistance of the emitter of silicon wafers and determine of both P/N recognition and metal resistance. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used contact formation technique for commercial silicon solar cells. The contact resistance of manufactured front metallization depends of both the paste composition and co-firing conditions. Screen printed front side metallization and next to co-fired in the infrared conveyor furnace was carried out at various temperature from 770°C to 920°C. The silver paste used in the present paper is commercial. The investigations were carried out on monocrystalline silicon wafers. The topography of co-fired in the infrared belt furnace front metallization was investigated using the atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). There were researched also cross sections of front contacts using SEM microscope. Front contacts of the solar cells were formed on non-textured silicon surface with coated antireflection layer. On one hand, based on electrical properties investigations using Sherescan instrument it was obtained the knowledge of the emitter sheet resistance across the surface of a wafer, what is essential in optimizing the emitter diffusion process. On the other hand, it was found using Corescan instrument that the higher temperature apparently results in a strongly decreased contact resistance.

Open access

D. Iwashima, K. Ejiri, N. Nagase, M. Hatakeyama and S. Sunada

). [7] S. Sunada, N. Numomura, S. Hirata, N. Nagase, Materials Science Forum. (2014) (in press). [8] K. Arai, Bunseki Kagaku. 43 , 729-730 (1994) (in Japanese). [9] D. Iwashima, S. Hirata, N. Nagase, M. Hatakeyama, S. Sunada, Materials Transactions 55 , 11, 1762-1764 (2014).

Open access

P. Pal-Val, L. Pal-Val, V. Natsik, A. Davydenko and A. Rybalko

, Recovery of Young’s modulus upon annealing of nanostructured niobium produced through severe plastic deformation. Phys Solid State 45, 2119-2123 (2003). [7] L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Theory of Elasticity, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970, p. 43. [8] S.L. Demakov, Y.N. Loginov, A.G. Illarionov, M.A. Ivanova, M.S. Karabanalov, Effect of annealing temperature on the texture of copper wire. Phys. Metals Metallogr. 113, 681-686 (2012).

Open access

M. Madej

-Madej, Archives of Metallurgy 58 , 1, 43-48 (2013). [8] M. Madej, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 53 , 3, 839-845 (2008). [9] N.A. Rhodes, J.V. Wood, J.R. Moon, Powder Metallurgy 43 , 2, 157-162 (2000).

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A. Mamala, T. Knych, P. Kwaśniewski, A. Kawecki, G. Kiesiewicz, E. Sieja-Smaga, W. Ściężor, M. Gniełczyk and R. Kowal

REFERENCES [1] A Guinier, Zeitschrift für Metallkunde 43, 217 (1952). [2] C. Borelius, The Physical Society London, p. 169 (1955). [3] E. A. Marquis, F. Leonard, N. C. Bartelt, Microscopy and Microanalysis 9 (13),. 1620 (2007). [4] S. Senapati, MSc Thesis, University of Central Florida, p.12, 2001. [5] W. Koster, F Braumann, Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde 43 , 193 (1952). [6] K. Hirano, H. Sakai, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 10 (6),454 (1955). [7] A. J. McAlister, Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams 8 (6

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J. Morgiel, N. Sobczak, M. Pomorska, R. Nowak and J. Wojewoda-Budka

References [1] N. Sobczak, J. Sobczak, R. Asthana, R. Purgert, The mystery of molten metal, China Foundry 7 [4], 425-43 (2010). [2] A.J. Mcevoy, R.H. Wiliams, I.G. Higginbotham, Jounal of Material Science 11 , 297 (1976). [3] D.A. Weirauch Jr ., Journal Materials Research 3 , 729 (1988). [4] H. Fujii, H. Nakae, Acta Materialia 44 , 3567-3573 (1996). [5] P. Shen, H. Fujii, T. Matsumoto, K. Nogi, Acta Materialia 52 , 887-898 (2004). [6] R. Nowak, N

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J. Dworecka, E. Jezierska, K. Rozniatowski and W. Swiatnicki

References [1] H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, C. Garcia - Mateo, P. Brown, Bainite steel and methods of manufacture thereof, United States Application US20110126946 (2011). [2] F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, J.A.Mawella, D.G. Jones, P. Brown, Mater. Sci. Tech. 18(3), 279-84 (2002). [3] C. Garcia - Mateo, F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, ISIJ Int. 43(8), 1238-43 (2003). [4] C. Garcia - Mateo, F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia, ISIJ Int. 43(11), 1821-5 (2003). [5] F.G. Caballero, H

Open access

M. Zamani Nejad, M. Abedi, M.H. Lotfian and M. Ghannad

REFERNCES [1] C.O. Horgan, A.M. Chan, J Elast. 55 , 43 (1999). [2] N. Tutuncu, M. Ozturk, Compos Part B-Eng. 32 , 683 (2001). [3] Z.F. Shi, T.T. Zhang, H.J. Xiang, Compos Struct. 79 , 140 (2007). [4] N. Tutuncu, Eng Struct. 29 , 2032 (2007). [5] Y.Z. Chen, X.Y. Lin, Comp Mater Sci. 44 , 581 (2008). [6] M.Z. Nejad, G.H. Rahimi, Sci Res Essays. 4 , 131 (2009). [7] M.Z. Nejad, G.H. Rahimi, M. Ghannad, Mechanika. 77, 18 (2009). [8] M. Ghannad, M.Z. Nejad, Mechanika. 85 , 11 (2010). [9] M.Z. Nejad, G