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B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała, J. Kasińska, M. Wróbel and M. Balicki
The article presents the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast duplex stainless steel type 23Cr-5Mn-2Ni-3Mo. It has been shown that the structure of the tested cast steel is composed of ferrite enriched in Cr, Mo and Si, and austenite enriched in Mn and Ni. In the initial state, at the interface, precipitates rich in Cr and Mo were present. A high carbon content (0.08%C) in this cast steel indicates that probably those were complex carbides of the M23C6 type and/or σ phase. Studies have proved that the solution annealing conducted at 1060°C was not sufficient for their full dissolution, while at the solutioning temperature of 1150°C, the structure of the tested material was composed of ferrite and austenite.
Partial replacement of Ni by two other austenite-forming elements, which are Mn and N, has ensured obtaining mechanical properties comparable to cast duplex 24Cr-5Ni-3Mo steel of the second generation. Basing on the results of static tensile test, a twice higher yield strength was proved to be obtained, compared to the cast austenitic 18Cr-9Ni and 19Cr-11Ni-2Mo steel commonly used in the foundry industry. In addition to the high yield strength (YS = 547 ÷ 572 MPa), the tested cast steel was characterized by the following mechanical properties: UTS = 731 ÷ 750 MPa, EL = 21 ÷ 29.5%, R.A. = 43 ÷ 52%, hardness 256 ÷ 266 HB. Fractures formed in mechanical tests showed ductile-brittle character.
M. Musztyfaga-Staszuk, L.A. Dobrzanski, S. Rusz and M. Staszuk
The aim of the paper was to apply the newly developed instruments ‘Corescan’ and ‘Sherescan’ in order to measure the essential parameters of producing solar cells in comparison with the standard techniques. The standard technique named the Transmission Line Method (TLM) is one way to monitor contacting process to measure contact resistance locally between the substrate and metallization. Nowadays, contact resistance is measured over the whole photovoltaic cell using Corescanner instrument. The Sherescan device in comparison with standard devices gives a possibility to measure the sheet resistance of the emitter of silicon wafers and determine of both P/N recognition and metal resistance. The Screen Printing (SP) method is the most widely used contact formation technique for commercial silicon solar cells. The contact resistance of manufactured front metallization depends of both the paste composition and co-firing conditions. Screen printed front side metallization and next to co-fired in the infrared conveyor furnace was carried out at various temperature from 770°C to 920°C. The silver paste used in the present paper is commercial. The investigations were carried out on monocrystalline silicon wafers. The topography of co-fired in the infrared belt furnace front metallization was investigated using the atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). There were researched also cross sections of front contacts using SEM microscope. Front contacts of the solar cells were formed on non-textured silicon surface with coated antireflection layer. On one hand, based on electrical properties investigations using Sherescan instrument it was obtained the knowledge of the emitter sheet resistance across the surface of a wafer, what is essential in optimizing the emitter diffusion process. On the other hand, it was found using Corescan instrument that the higher temperature apparently results in a strongly decreased contact resistance.
D. Iwashima, K. Ejiri, N. Nagase, M. Hatakeyama and S. Sunada
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P. Pal-Val, L. Pal-Val, V. Natsik, A. Davydenko and A. Rybalko
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A. Mamala, T. Knych, P. Kwaśniewski, A. Kawecki, G. Kiesiewicz, E. Sieja-Smaga, W. Ściężor, M. Gniełczyk and R. Kowal
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J. Morgiel, N. Sobczak, M. Pomorska, R. Nowak and J. Wojewoda-Budka
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J. Dworecka, E. Jezierska, K. Rozniatowski and W. Swiatnicki
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M. Zamani Nejad, M. Abedi, M.H. Lotfian and M. Ghannad
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