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The study tries to bridge the gap between research on how the Lithuanian language and its varieties are spoken and maintained by migrants and on how the standard language ideology affects the speakers of regional varieties in Lithuania. The paper investigates Lithuanian Samogitian migrants’ attitudes towards their regional variety, the main factors that might influence their beliefs and whether the standard language ideology is one of these factors. The in-depth analysis of 10 audio-recorded and coded interview responses has shown that in migration, similarly as in Lithuania, people’s attitudes towards Samogitian and the usage of it are governed by the three main factors, namely education, Soviet language policy and the linguistic pressure from society. Even though migrants do not feel intense pressure to speak the “right” language and feel much freer to use the variety of their choice when talking to other migrants, they still believe that it is common sense to use the standard in official gatherings, for public speeches or for official events.
This article examines the affective terrain of Poland, Canada, and the US in Eva Hoffman’s autobiographical account of her migration and exile in Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language (1989), the text that launched Hoffman’s reputation as a writer and intellectual. Hoffman’s Jewish family left Poland for Vancouver in 1959, when restrictions on emigration were lifted. Hoffman was 13 when she emigrated to Canada, where she lived until she went to college in the US and began her career. Lost in Translation represents her trajectory in terms of “Paradise,” “Exile,” and “The New World,” and the narrative explicitly thematizes nostalgia. While Hoffman’s nostalgia for post-war Poland has sometimes earned censure from critics who draw attention to Polish anti-Semitism and the failings of Communism, this article stresses how Hoffman’s nostalgia for her Polish childhood is saturated with self-consciousness and an awareness of the politics of remembering and forgetting. Thus, Hoffman’s work helps nuance the literary and critical discourse on nostalgia. Drawing on theories of nostalgia and affect developed by Svetlana Boym and Sara Ahmed, and on Adriana Margareta Dancus’s notion of “affective displacement,” this article examines Hoffman’s complex understanding of nostalgia. It argues that nostalgia in Lost in Translation is conceived as an emotion which offers the means to critique cultural practices and resist cultural assimilation. Moreover, the lyricism of Hoffman’s autobiography becomes a mode for performing the ambivalence of nostalgia and diasporic feeling.
The paper will focus on the Balearic Islands, the autonomous community of Spain, located in the western Mediterranean Sea. The focus is placed not only on the demography and the linguistic situation but primarily on the linguistic politics and the language legislation of this territory. The Balearic Islands have the same political autonomy as the other Autonomous Communities of Spain which, however, use it far less than the other communities. Catalan is not for local inhabitants, who do not feel a strong belonging to the Catalan speaking world, so an essential part of identity as for the inhabitants of Catalonia and therefore the linguistic question for the local politicians is not such a priority as for the politicians in Catalonia. Even the sense of identity on the Islands is less intense than in Catalonia or the Basque Country, thanks to the migration from the different parts of Spain and from abroad. Despite the emancipation efforts, which we can observe even in other parts of Spain, Catalan on the Balearic Islands, due to the reasons mentioned above contrary to Catalonia, does not have any chance to resist Spanish or even to overpower it.
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