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The indigenous islanders of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are representing the earliest form of developmental stage, their nutritional assessment and anthropometric comparison with contemporary populations are the main objective of the present paper. In this study we present a cross sectional analysis of anthropometric data of 2010 individuals of 19 different groups. The data were collected by the trained anthropologists of Anthropological Survey of India, following standard techniques and ethical guidelines. It was found that the Indigenous Islanders have small body size as compared to immigrants and counterparts. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) was found highest among the mainlanders. Highest prevalence of overweight was found among Great Andamanese (18.2%), followed by Onge (7.4%). Individuals below 21 years of age were not found to be overweight or obese. On the other side, 16.7% of individual of age 41+ of local born were found to be overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2). It can be concluded that the Indigenous people of the Islands are short in stature and nutritionally better than immigrants. The immigrants are better than their counterparts in the mainland, but still they are not able to reach at par of the indigenous people in the level of nutrition whereas logarithmic transformation of data and scaling exponent (β) of weight to height was found ~2 across these populations.
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Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10t-14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th-15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th-17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki), with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable due to political situation, military threats and migrations of people.
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