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Marta Bon, Mojca Doupona Topič and Marko Šibila

Introduction Globalization and human migration are evident in many areas, among them sports. Migration is present in all countries around the world ( Eliasson, 2009 ; Maguire and Pearton, 2000 ). These countries can be the cause of emigration or immigration, or simply a travel destination, but most often, it is all three. Migration is a way for people to search for better living conditions. There is a distinction between internal migration, when people move within a country, and international migration, when people move between countries. If we overlook

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Jožef Križaj, Bojan Leskošek, Janez Vodičar and Mojca Doupona Topič

“internalization model”, in which an individual learnt in different ways to use the rules of the society in which he/she lived. Previous studies of the cultural capital among elite athletes have mostly been limited to the description of the globalization processes and research on the characteristics of soccer players’ migration. For example, Maguire and Falcous (2011) considered migration in sports as involving a global process of “ culture exchange” . Lee (2010) interpreted sports migration as a form of labour migration through which elite soccer players sought attractive

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Sławomir Rębisz and Ilona Sikora

Abstract

Students’ educational migration is one of the phenomena characteristic of the globalization processes. It has been growing dynamically since the 1970s. A number of young people studying abroad has grown globally from 0.8m in 1975 to almost 5m in 2014. It comes therefore as no surprise that educational migration has become a subject of many sociological and economic studies. Their authors usually use the push-pull factors model i.e. they investigate the factors that “push” students out of their own countries and those that “pull” them to the new place of study. Our research on foreign students in Poland has been approached from a similar angle. In fact, we set out to find an answer to the question “What made foreign students from Ukraine leave their country and why did they choose to study in Poland?” To find our answers we conducted questionnaire interviews on a random purposive sample of foreign students from Ukraine (N=83). In addition, to avoid the risk that the resulting correlations were accidental and the knowledge yielded in this way false, we also used the triangulation procedure – a supporting, in-depth qualitative study involving a focus group. We altogether managed to hold 4 sessions. The results obtained in the questionnaire study and in the focus group sessions were sorted and analyzed statistically (quantitative and qualitative analysis), which allowed us to find out about the main motives influencing students’ migration decisions as well as the factors “pushing” them out of Ukraine and attracting them to Poland.

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Ashley M. Popp and Chia-Ju Yen

Abstract

The first part of this study, explored by Ashley Popp, presents an investigation into a relatively unexamined area of physical education: an analysis of a transcultural phenomenon in the history of dance. Data has been collected from primary sources and archival evidence to assess competing ideologies inherent in the transformation of a particular art form. In the analysis of the cultural migration through which belly dance was transferred from the Middle East to the United States, an adaptive reaction to the hegemonic relationships of culture, race, gender, and class has been observed. Beyond performance aesthetics, links have been made between the act of belly dancing and the building of women’s self-esteem, as researched by Chia-Ju Yen. The main purpose of her study was to explore how facial burn patients cope with disfigurement and the unfriendly attitudes of others, and examines the alteration of body image via inspiration provided by the performance of belly dance. This research was conducted from the perspective of an anthropologically thickdescription research method, and a case study was performed using in-depth interviews, including narratives by a woman who had suffered facial injuries. The results of the research showed that through family support, hard work and a decisive and studious personality, the patient was able to cope with the discriminatory attitude of others. The performance of belly dance not only made her emphasize her body, but also enriched her life.

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Katarzyna Krych-Garsztka, Hanna Mizgajska-Wiktor and Anna Goździcka-Józefiak

An Analysis of the Regulatory Region of the IGF1 Gene in Professional Athletes in Youth Sports Teams

Purpose. The aim of this study was to search for single nucleotide changes in the P1 promoter sequence of the IGF1 gene in both high-class athletes and subjects who do not participate in professional sports. The second rationale was to compare the polymorphism frequency in the promoter region in athletes across a variety of sport disciplines. Methods. 272 athletes from the regional sports team of Wielkopolska (Poland) took part in the study. 154 athletes practiced team sports whereas 118 trained in strength sports. The control group comprised of 122 individuals who did not practice sport professionally. Genetic material came from epithelium swabs from the oral cavity, which was then subject to DNA isolation and tested with the PCR/SSCP technique. DNA samples showing different migration in electrophoresis were then sequenced. Results. The frequency of the polymorphisms was substantially higher (p < 0.05) in the athlete group (9.2%) than in the control group (2.4%). A considerably higher frequency of the sequence changes (p < 0.05%) was observed in those athletes who participated in strength sports (11.0%) than in team sports (7.8%). Among all the individuals tested, the -147bp -475bp region was the most polymorphic, yet changes within this fragment were not detected in the control group. In the control group the most often change in the nucleotide sequence was observed at position -1089 (T/C), while in the athlete group at position -383 (C/T). Change at position -1089 (T/C), found in eight individuals, is related to a potential binding site of the AP-1 transcription factor. Change at position -361 (G/A), detected in two individuals, is probably the site for the Sp1 transcription factor. Conclusion. The conducted study found that single nucleotide polymorphism of the P1 promoter region of the IGF1 gene is more frequent in athletes than in non-athletes. We believe that the variation in the P1 promoter sequence of this gene is related to an organism's adaptation to physical (especially strength) activity.

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Ramon Llopis-Goig

Football. Sociology of Sport Journal , 16 (1), pp. 35-53. Garland, J., Rowe, M. (2001). Racism and Anti-Racism in Football. New York: Palgrave. Long, J., Robinson, P., Spracklen, K. (2005). Promoting racial equality within sports organizations. Journal of Sport & Social Issues , 29 (1): pp. 41-59. Maguire, J. (1994). Preliminary observations on globalisation and the migration of sport labour. Sociological Review , 28 (4): 452-480. Maguire, J. (2004). Sport Labour

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Mark Nesti, Martin Littlewood, Lisa O’Halloran, Martin Eubank and David Richardson

Adolescence, 14(3), 300-327. Jones, G. (1995). More than just a game: Research developments and issues in competitive anxiety in sport. British Journal of Psychology, 86(4), 449-478. Littlewood, M. (2005). The impact of foreign player acquisition on the development and progression of young players in elite level English professional football. Unpublished PhD thesis, Liverpool John Moores University, UK. Littlewood, M., Mullen, C., & Richardson, D. (2011). Football labour migration: An examination of the player recruitment

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Vincze Géza

Sciences , 16, pp. 211-234. Levanon, J., Dapena, J. (1998). Comparison of the kinematic of the full-instep and pass kicks in soccer. Medicine Sciences in Sport and Exercise , 30(6), pp. 917-926. Luxbacher, J. (1996). Soccer: Steps to success. Champaign, IL.: Human Kinetics. Maguire, J., Stead, D. (1998). Border Crossings. Soccer labour migration and the European Union. International Review for the Sociology of Sport , 33(1), pp. 59-73. Maykut, P., Morehouse, R

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Martina Husáková

. Stillwell (Eds.), Planning support systems: Best practices and new methods (pp. 211–226). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978–1-4020–8952–7_11. Kaur, H., Kahlon, K. S., & Virk R. S. (2014). Migration Dynamics in Artifical Agent Societies. International Journal of Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence , 3(2), 39–47. DOI: 10.14569/IJARAI.2014.030208. Kravari, K., & Bassiliades, N. (2015). A Survey of Agent Platforms. Jo urnal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 18(1). Retrieved from http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/18

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Ryszard Cieśliński and Ernest Szum

] Chwalba A. (Ed.) (2005). Customs in Poland. From the Middle Ages to the modern times . Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN. [in Polish] Ogrodowska B. (2001). Customs, rituals and traditions in Poland . Mały słownik. Warszawa: Verbinum. [in Polish] R.A. (1998). Tradition - the strength of the Lemkos. Nowiny 193, 1. [in Polish] Kwilecki A. (1970). Cohabitation with the Polish population and cultural changes amongst the Lemkos. Etnografia Polska 14, 1, 25-56. [in Polish] Fischer S. (1967). Work migration of the