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Russell King and Aija Lulle

References Baldassar, L. (2007) Transnational families and aged care: the mobility of care and the migrancy of ageing, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 33(2): 275-297. Baldassar, L. and Merla, L. eds (2014a) Transnational Families, Migration and the Circulation of Care . New York: Routledge. Baldassar, L. and Merla, L. (2014b) Introduction: Transnational family caregiving through the lens of circulation, in L. Baldassar and L. Merla (eds) Transnational Families, Migration and the Circulation of Care . New York: Routledge, 3

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Abla Mehio Sibai, Aline Semaan, Jiana Tabbara and Anthony Rizk

a rural Palestinian population. . Accessed 10 September 2017. International Labour Organization (ILO) (2015). . Accessed 22 September, 2017. Khader, Y., Batieha, A., Ajlouni, H., El-Khateeb, M. and Ajlouni, K. (2008). Obesity in Jordan: prevalence, associated factors, comorbidities, and change in prevalence over ten years. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 6(2): 113-120. Khan, H

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Pearl A. Dykstra and Gunhild O. Hagestad

Security: Progress Towards Equality of Treatment. Geneva: International Labor Office. Carling, J., Menjívar, C., & Schmalzbauer, L. (2012). Central themes in the study of transnational parenthood, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 38(2): 191-217. Clarke, B. (2015). New Dutch laws in effect from July 1, 2015. Accessed May 29, 2016. Economist (2016, March 3). The best—and worst—places to be a working woman.

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Mahmood Messkoub


Declining fertility and rising life expectancy combined with migration are changing the demographic landscape of the MENA. Earlier high fertility will ensure a growing population in the next 20-30 years. Family structure is also changing: families are becoming smaller and increasingly nuclear, rather than extended. The region has to manage a young age structure and a gradual ageing of the population but with a potential weakening of the traditional inter-generational support based on family, it also faces a widely varying and heterogeneous resource base and socio-economic structure across the different countries. To maintain and improve inter-generational support within family and society in the MENA countries with large populations (such as Iran and Egypt) the most important challenges are poverty and vulnerability, unemployment, and development of long-term plans for an ageing population. These are inter-connected objectives since reducing poverty and increasing current employment could provide individuals and families with some resources to save and accumulate for old age. States in the region should put redistributive social policies in the areas of health, education and housing at the heart of a strategy of supporting family budgets and resources to assist them in their inter-generational care, but should also set up care and pension schemes to provide societal intergenerational support.

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Ieva Reine and Signe Tomsone

Bibliography ACP Observatory of Migration (2012). Transnational families and the social and gender impact of mobility in ACP countries . ACPOBS/2012/BN06. Brandt, M., K. Haberkern, and M. Szydlik (2009). “Intergenerational help and care in Europe.” In: European Sociological Review 25 (5), pp. 585–601. Colombo, F. et al. (2011). Help wanted? Providing and paying for long-term care: providing and paying for long-term care . Vol. OECD health policy studies. OECD Publishing. Jahoda, M. (1981). “Work, employment and unemployment. Values

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Peter Lloyd-Sherlock

:// Sharif Ismail, Ruth Thorlby and Holly Holder (2014) Focus on: social care for older people. Reductions in adult social services for older people in England. London. The Health Foundation and the Nuffield Trust Kingdon, J. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. Boston: Little, Brown. 240p. Kreager, P., & Schroder-Butterfill, E. (2015). Differential impacts of migration on the family networks of older

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M. Murat Yüceşahin and A. Yiğitalp Tulga

References Addio, A.C. & Ercole, M.M. (2005). Trends and determinants of fertility in OECD countries: The role of policies. Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers , no. 27.Cedex. Afifi, A.A. & Clark, V. (1999). Computer-Aided Multivariate Analysis . Third ed., London: Chapman and Hall/CRC Press. 455p. Allman, J. (1980). The demographic transition in the Middle East and North Africa. International Journal of Middle East Studies , 12(3): 277-301. Bacher, J. (2002

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Gayle Clifford, Gill Craig and Christine McCourt

., Lindner, G., Kokot-Louw, P. and Pauw, A. (2009) ‘Disclosure of maternal HIV-infection in South Africa: Description and relationship to child functioning’, AIDS and Behavior , 13(6), pp. 1241–1252. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9447-4. Parrenas, R. (2001) Servants of Globilization . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Phoenix, A. (2010) ‘Transforming “non-normative” motherhood: Retrospective accounts of transnational motherhood in serial migration’, Radical Psychology , 9(2). Pollard, V. (2013) ‘Mothering and Migration:The Ones They Left Behind’, in Silva

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Assefa Hailemariam

Statistical Agency, Addis Ababa, and ICF International, USA. CSA and ORC Macro. (2001). Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2000. Central Statistical Office Addis Ababa, and ORC Macro, USA. CSA and ORC Macro. (2006). Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Central Statistical Office Addis Ababa, and ORC Macro, USA Erulkar, Annabel, S., Tekle-Ab Mekbib, Negussie Simie & Tsehai Gulema. (2006).Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Youth Studies.Volume 9, Issue 3