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Mircea Comşa

., Engbersen, G., Okólski, M., & Panţîru, C. (2010a). A continent moving west? EU enlargement and labour migration from Central and Eastern Europe . Amsterdam; Manchester: Amsterdam University Press; Manchester University Press. Black, R., Engbersen, G., Okólski, M., & Panţîru, C. (2010b). Introduction: Working out a way from East to West: EU enlargement and labour migration from Central and Eastern Europe. In R. Black, G. Engbersen, M. Okólski & C. Panţîru (Eds.), A continent moving west? EU enlargement and labour migration from Central and Eastern Europe

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Annemarie Sorescu-Marinković

REFERENCES Anthias, F. (1998). Evaluating “Diaspora”: Beyond Ethnicity? Sociology , 32(3): 557-580. Bommes, M., Sciortino, G. (2011). In lieu of a conclusion. Steps towards a conceptual framework for the study of irregular migration. In M. Bommes and G. Sciortino (eds.): Foggy Social Structures. Irregular Migration, European Labour Markets and the Welfare State . Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp. 213-228. Brubaker, R. (2005). The “diaspora” diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies , 28(1): 1-19. Comments Government Serbia. (2009

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Diana Mariana Popa

, Pathé Pictures International. Castells, M. (2000). The Information Age. Economy, Society and Culture , Volume I: The Rise of the Network Society (second edition). Oxford: Blackwell. Dekker, P. and Posthumus, H. (2013). Burgerperspectieven 2013 . Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, Den Haag. Ferro, A. (2009). Români în străinătate. Un instantaneu despre migrația “creierelor”. In R.G. Anghel and I. Horvath (eds.): Sociologia Migrației. Teorii și Studii de Caz Românești . [The Sociology of Migration. Theories and Case Studies from Romania]. Iași

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Ionuţ Földes and Veronica Savu

REFERENCES Agresti, A. (2002). Categorical data analysis. Second Edition. New York: Wiley. Baldassar, L. (2001). Visits Home: migration experiences between Italy and Australia . Australia: Melbourne University Press. Baldassar, L. (2008). Missing Kin and Longing to be Together: Emotions and the Construction of Co-presence in Transnational Relationships. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 29(3): 247-266. Baldassar, L. (2011). Italian Migrants in Australia and their Relationship to Italy: Return Visits, Transnational Caregiving and the

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Cecilia Rubiolo

REFERENCES Allasino, E. (2000). Immigrati in Piemonte. Una panoramica sulla presenza degli stranieri nel territorio regionale. IRES , WP 143/2000. Andreiescu, V. (2012). Istoria penticostalismului românesc . Oradea: Casa Cărții. Andrijasevic, R., Sacchetto, D. (2016). From labour migration to labour mobility? The return of the multinational worker in Europe. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research , 22(2): 219-231. Anghel, R. (2013). Romanians in Western Europe . Lanham: Lexington Books. Aubrée, M. (2003). Un néo

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Ionuţ Földes

REFERENCES Anghel, R. G. (2008). Changing Statuses: Freedom of Movement, Locality and Transnationality of Irregular Romanian Migrants in Milan. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 34(5): 787-802. Baldassar, L. (2007a). Transnational families and aged care: The mobility of care and the migracy of ageing. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(2): 275-297. Baldassar, L. (2007b). Transnational families and the provision of moral and emotional support: the relationship between truth and distance. Identities: Global Studies in Culture

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Russell King and Aija Lulle

References Baldassar, L. (2007) Transnational families and aged care: the mobility of care and the migrancy of ageing, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 33(2): 275-297. Baldassar, L. and Merla, L. eds (2014a) Transnational Families, Migration and the Circulation of Care . New York: Routledge. Baldassar, L. and Merla, L. (2014b) Introduction: Transnational family caregiving through the lens of circulation, in L. Baldassar and L. Merla (eds) Transnational Families, Migration and the Circulation of Care . New York: Routledge, 3

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Abla Mehio Sibai, Aline Semaan, Jiana Tabbara and Anthony Rizk

a rural Palestinian population. . Accessed 10 September 2017. International Labour Organization (ILO) (2015). . Accessed 22 September, 2017. Khader, Y., Batieha, A., Ajlouni, H., El-Khateeb, M. and Ajlouni, K. (2008). Obesity in Jordan: prevalence, associated factors, comorbidities, and change in prevalence over ten years. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 6(2): 113-120. Khan, H

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Pearl A. Dykstra and Gunhild O. Hagestad

Security: Progress Towards Equality of Treatment. Geneva: International Labor Office. Carling, J., Menjívar, C., & Schmalzbauer, L. (2012). Central themes in the study of transnational parenthood, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies , 38(2): 191-217. Clarke, B. (2015). New Dutch laws in effect from July 1, 2015. Accessed May 29, 2016. Economist (2016, March 3). The best—and worst—places to be a working woman.

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Mahmood Messkoub


Declining fertility and rising life expectancy combined with migration are changing the demographic landscape of the MENA. Earlier high fertility will ensure a growing population in the next 20-30 years. Family structure is also changing: families are becoming smaller and increasingly nuclear, rather than extended. The region has to manage a young age structure and a gradual ageing of the population but with a potential weakening of the traditional inter-generational support based on family, it also faces a widely varying and heterogeneous resource base and socio-economic structure across the different countries. To maintain and improve inter-generational support within family and society in the MENA countries with large populations (such as Iran and Egypt) the most important challenges are poverty and vulnerability, unemployment, and development of long-term plans for an ageing population. These are inter-connected objectives since reducing poverty and increasing current employment could provide individuals and families with some resources to save and accumulate for old age. States in the region should put redistributive social policies in the areas of health, education and housing at the heart of a strategy of supporting family budgets and resources to assist them in their inter-generational care, but should also set up care and pension schemes to provide societal intergenerational support.