and Agro-chemistry. 13. Bondietti, E. A. (1982). Mobile species of Pu, Am, Cm, Np and Tc in the environment. Environmental Migration of Long-Lived Radionuclides. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. (SM257/42). 14. Pruess, K., Oldenburg, C., & Moridis, G. (1999). TOUGH2 User’s Guide, Version 2.0. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 15. Curtis, M., Oldenburg, C., & Pruess, K. (1995). EOS7R: Radionuclide Transport for TOUGH2, Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (Report LBL-34868
Wioleta Olszewska, Agnieszka Miśkiewicz, Grażyna Zakrzewska-Kołtuniewicz, Leszek Lankof and Leszek Pająk
The migration and delivery of filter flavour agents were studied by dissolving 10 model flavour compounds in triacetin at 10 mg/ml each and fabricating cigarettes with flavoured filter tips. The concentrations of these compounds in filters, tobacco, and smoke particulates collected on Cambridge filters were determined by capillary column gas chromatography initially and after 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Flavour migration was found to obey first-order kinetics, with the rate constant being determined by the volatility of the flavour compound dissolved in the plasticized filter. Delivery of flavour compounds decreased with time at a greater rate than could be explained by flavour migration. A high correlation between the solubility characteristics of the flavour and its rate of delivery efficiency loss lead to the proposed explanation that flavour compounds diffuse into the cellulose acetate fibers with time and become less accessible for elution into the smoke aerosol. Model compounds with poor solubilities in plasticized cellulose acetate remain near the surface of the fibers where they are readily eluted into the mainstream smoke and, consequently, exhibit smaller delivery efficiency losses with time. Ventilation was observed to initially increase the ratio of flavour to TPM delivery, but this advantage was lost as the cigarette aged.
Beata Kozłowska, Jadwiga Mazur, Krzysztof Kozak, Agata Walencik-Łata and Błażej Baic
Poland 2011. (Biblioteka Monitoringu Środowiska) Warszawa Centralne Laboratorium Ochrony Środowiska (in Polish) 3. Hassan, M., Hosoda, M., Ishikawa, T., Sorimachi, A., Sahoo, S. K., Tokonami, S., & Fukushi, M. (2009). Radon migration process and its influence factors; Review. Jpn. J. Health Phys. , 44 , 218–231. Hassan M. Hosoda M. Ishikawa T. Sorimachi A. Sahoo S. K. Tokonami S. Fukushi M. 2009 Radon migration process and its influence factors; Review Jpn. J. Health Phys. 44 218 231 4. Kojima, H., & Nagano, K
1062739149050067 16. Wysocka, M. (2011). Influence of mining on radon migration in the geological environment (Wpływ górnictwa na migrację radonu w środowisku geologicznym). (Prace Naukowe GIG, vol. 885). Katowice: Główny Instytut Górnictwa (in Polish). Wysocka M. 2011 Influence of mining on radon migration in the geological environment (Wpływ górnictwa na migrację radonu w środowisku geologicznym) (Prace Naukowe GIG, vol. 885). Katowice Główny Instytut Górnictwa (in Polish) 17. Ball, T. K., & Miles, J. C. H. (1993). Geological and
Mirosław Janik and Peter Bossew
It is well known that the temporal dynamic of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations show complex patterns, which are partly not easy to interpret. Clearly, for physical reasons, they must be related to possibly variable conditions of radon generation, migration and atmospheric dispersion and accumulation. The aim of this study was to analyse long-time series of simultaneously measured indoor and outdoor radon concentrations, together with environmental quantities, which may act as control variables of Rn. The study was performed in Chiba, Japan, using two ionization chambers for parallel indoor and outdoor radon concentrations measurements over 4 years. Meteorological and seismic data were obtained from the Japan Metrological Agency (JMA).
Volodymyr T. Maslyuk, Olesya I. Symkanich, Natalya I. Svatyuk, Oleg O. Parlag and Sergij M. Sukharev
The results of the low-background gamma spectrometric measurements of protected mountain areas (Zacharovanyy Kray, Chorne Bahno, Ihthyological Preserve Rika and Uzhanskij National Natural Park) in the region of Primeval Beech Forests of the Transcarpathia, Ukraine, are presented. The distances between sampling points in a single protected area were in the range of 200–400 m in elevation of 300 m; probes were taken from the surface, from depth 20 cm and more than 50 cm. The proposed sampling scheme allows one to investigate the radionuclide concentration in protected area’s soils, their distribution on/near the mountain ridges and migration in depth (0–50 cm). We also investigate the influence the soils’ pH on the contents and the migration of nuclides. The obtained data allow us to study the statistical regularities between the sampling points along and down mountain ridges on the base of their radionuclide content. These results are important for evaluating the radon content/distribution and developing standards in the radionuclide content of the soil Carpathian region.
Arūnas Gudelis and Inga Gorina
References 1. Gudelis, A., Nedveckaitė, T., Prokopčiuk, N., Filistovič, V., Remeikis, V., & Motiejūnas, S. (2010). Assessment of radionuclide migration and radiological human exposure at the closed near-surface radioactive waste repository. Nukleonika, 55(2), 251-259. 2. Nedveckaitė, T., Gudelis, A., & Vives i Batlle, J. (2013). Impact assessment of ionizing radiation on human and non-human biota from the vicinity of a near-surface radioactive waste repository. Radiat. Environ. Biophys., 52(2), 221-234. 3
Piotr Decyk, Andrzej B. Więckowski, Lidia Najder-Kozdrowska and Iveta Bilkova
-state ion exchange in zeolites using pyridine as a probe. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans ., 91 (12), 1845–1851. DOI: 10.1039/ft9959101845. 8. Karge, H. G., Hunger, M., & Beyer, H. K. (1999). Characterization of zeolites – infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In J. Weitkamp & L. Puppe (Eds.), Catalysis and zeolites: Fundamentals and applications (pp. 198–326). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 9. Goslar, J., & Więckowski, A. B. (1985). Migration and structure of aqueous Cu 2+ complexes in Faujasite. J. Solid State Chem ., 56 (1
-XVIII. 20. Curran, J.G.: Delivery of menthol from cigarettes containing either a mentholated filter or mentholated tobacco; Tob. Sci. 16 (1972) 40-42; Curran, J.G.: Effect of certain liquid filter additives on menthol deliver; 28th Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 28, Paper No. 08, 1974, p. 11; Mathis, D.E.: Migration and delivery of filter flavors; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 12 (1983) 1-8; Wood, CE.: Cellulose acetate filter and fiber parameters affecting cigarette menthol delivery and menthol absorption by the filter tip; 37th
Krzysztof Kilian, Zbigniew Rogulski, Łukasz Cheda, Agnieszka Drzał, Marina Gerszewska, Michał Cudny and Martyna Elas
, and cancer: surviving the harsh tumor microenvironment. Trends Cell. Biol., 24(8), 472-477. 4. Brown, J. M. (2007). Tumor hypoxia in cancer therapy. H. Sies, & B. Brune (Eds.) Methods in enzymolology. Vol. 435 (pp. 297-321). Academic Press. 5. Nagelkerke, A., Bussink, J., Mujcic, H., Wouters, B. G., Lehmann, S., Sweep, F. C. G. J., & Span, P. N. (2013). Hypoxia stimulates migration of breast cancer cells via the PERK/ATF4/LAMP3-arm of the unfolded protein response. Breast Cancer Res., 15, R2(13pp). 6. Weeks, A. J