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Junyu Liang, Weiqian Chen and Jin Lin

chromatin remodeling, promoter inactivation by binding to basal transcription factors, activation of accessory protein, activation and transport of transcription factors, oligomerization of activator protein, and epigenetic repression of genes or gene clusters. [ 10 ] Accumulating evidence has shown that lncRNAs participate in the process of inflammation, aberrant proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis, [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ] and their roles in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), sjogren syndrome, RA, multiple sclerosis, have

Open access

Nan Ge, Jinlong Hu, Siyu Sun, Enqiang Linghu, Zhendong Jin and Zhaoshen Li

of the PPs to 3 cm on imaging (mainly EUS or CT) within 3 months. Procedure-related side effects included hemorrhage, stent migration into the cyst, cyst rupture with the use of cystotome, and severe infection. Reinterventions are endoscopic treatments performed after the initial EUS-guided stent placement. Failures include residual clinical symptoms, cyst reduction less than 50% in 3 months, or altered to open surgery. Hospital stay is calculated from the day of the initial EUS-guided drainage in hospital to the day of discharge. Devices Longitudinal

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Sarah P. Georgiadou, Konstantinos P. Makaritsis and George N. Dalekos

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by phlebotomine female sand flies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia in the old and new world, respectively. More than 20 well-recognized Leishmania species are known to infect humans and cause visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous (ML) forms of the disease. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. The disease mainly affects poor people in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and is associated with malnutrition, population migration, poor residency conditions, frail immune system and lack of resources. Previously, diagnosis of leishmaniasis relied mainly on invasive techniques of detecting parasites in splenic and bone marrow aspirates. Nevertheless, serological tests using the recombinant kinesin antigen (rK39) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction) are considered the best options for diagnosis today, despite problems related to varying sensitivities and specificities and field adaptability. Therapy of leishmaniasis ranges from local treatment of cutaneous lesions to systemic often toxic, therapy for disseminated CL, ML and VL. Agents with efficacy against leishmaniasis include amphotericin B, pentavalent antimonial drugs, paromomycin and miltefosine. No single therapy of VL currently offers satisfactory efficacy along with safety. This article provides a brief and updated systematic review on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of this neglected disease.

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Weili Men, Haijuan Xiao, Zhiping Yang and Daiming Fan

]. Prod Res 2011; 9: 7. Wang Y [Overview of talent agglomeration research] Prod Res 2011 9 7 2 Giannetti M. Skill complementarities and migration decisions. Labor 2001; 15: 1-32. 10.1111/1467-9914.00153 Giannetti M Skill complementarities and migration decisions Labor 2001 15 1 32 3 Kalling T. Knowledge management and the occasional links with performance. J Knowl Manag 2003; 3: 67-81. Kalling T Knowledge management and the occasional links with performance J Knowl Manag 2003 3 67 81 4 Cohen WM, Nelson RR, Walsh JP. Links

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Eva Kiousi and Eirini Grapsa

, Fennell RS. Family behavior, adaptation and treatment adherence of nephrology patients. Pediatr Nephrol 1996;10:160-6. 26. Züllich D, Zimmering M, Keil T, Querfeld U. Migration background and patient satisfaction in a pediatric nephrology outpatient clinic. Pediatr Nephrol 2012;27:1309-16. 27. Davis JS, Zuber K. Implementing patient education in the CKD clinic. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2013;20:320-5. 28. Kutlugün AA, Arıcı M, Yıldırım T, Turgut D, Yılmaz R, Altındal M, et al. Daily sodium intake in chronic kidney disease

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Xue Peng, Can Wei, Hong-Zhu Li, Hong-Xia Li, Shu-Zhi Bai, Li-Na Wang, Yu-Hui Xi, Jin Yan and Chang-Qing Xu

to the proliferation of PASMCs and vascular remodeling of pulmonary hypertension. Although the study of pathological changes in HPH has become clearer, the cellular mechanisms related to excessive and uncontrolled growth of vascular wall cells remain unclear. An increase in the concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ) in PASMCs is the main cause for pulmonary vasoconstriction and a critical stimulation for PASMCs proliferation and migration.[ 21 ] As the major regulator of intracellular calcium concentrations, the CaSR can respond to the changes in

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Wa’el Tuqan, Ayoub Innabi, Alia Alawneh, Fadi Abu Farsakh and Maan Al-Khatib

shown in a prospective study done by Robson et al . to significantly reduce the severity of pruritus. [ 14 ] However, there is mixed results with regards to the effect of PTBD on the quality of life. PTBD is an intervention that is not free of complications. Most common complication following the biliary drainage is drain dislodgement and the need for re-intervention. Other possible complications include pain, biliary leakage around puncture site, hemorrhage, perforation, infections and stent migration. [ 8 , 9 , 15 , 16 ] Therefore, it is really important to

Open access

Chuan Li, Lili Qu, Cullen Farragher, Anthony Vella and Beiyan Zhou

expression and promotes muscle injury repair Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 106 17475 – 80 49 Kim C, Wilcox-Adelman S, Sano Y, Tang WJ, Collier RJ, Park JM. Antiinflammatory cAMP signaling and cell migration genes co-opted by the anthrax bacillus. Proc Natl Acad Sci US A 2008; 105: 6150–5. Kim C Wilcox-Adelman S Sano Y Tang WJ Collier RJ Park JM Antiinflammatory cAMP signaling and cell migration genes co-opted by the anthrax bacillus Proc Natl Acad Sci US A 2008 105 6150 – 5 50 Ananieva O, Darragh J, Johansen C, Carr JM

Open access

Martin Rössle and Michael Schultheiss

of the portal vein. The narrowing of the vascular bed may then accelerate the blood flow limiting further thrombus formation and maintaining some degree of patency ( Figure 2 ). Intrahepatic PVT may be a result of stagnant or reversed intrahepatic blood flow. It may, however, also be due to thrombus migration from an extrahepatic source thatmay still be detectable or resolved ( Figure 2 ). The lack of collaterals or their presence may inform about the age of the thrombus ( Figure 3 , 4 ). It can be assumed that detailed information such as given in Figure 1 – 4

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Faisal Khan, Homoyon Mehrzad and Dhiraj Tripathi

, IVC, and portal vein injury; contrast materials induced acute renal failure, and stent migration. TIPS-related deaths were rare. [ 51 ] Shunt dysfunction appears to be more frequent in BCS-TIPS patients because of their prothrombotic states (range, 18–100% in 14 case series). This was more common in patients receiving bare stents than in patients receiving PTFE-covered stents. [ 51 ] Hepatic encephalopathy was previously considered uncommon after TIPS, but the recent long-term data suggest that nearly 20% of BCS-TIPS patient are affected. [ 25 ] In another