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Aurelia Enescu, F. Petrescu, P. Mitruţ, V. Pădureanu, Octavia Ileana Petrescu, Valeria Carmen Albu, Andreea Larisa Moraru and Anca Ştefania Enescu


Hyponatremia is defined by a level of Na in serum below or equal to 136 mEq/L while in hepatic cirrhosis it is classically considered as relevant only at a level of Na below 130 mEq/L.

Hyponatremia frequently occurs in patients with end-stage hepatic disease. The frequency and severity are variable but it has been estimated that it occurs with a frequency of 57% in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and in those on waiting lists for hepatic transplants. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are related to dysfunctions of the central nervous system, due to migration of the water from intravascular space to the brain cells, resulting in the occurrence of cerebral edema. Therapeutic options in hyponatremia are limited and are based on restriction of water consumption, exclusion of diuretics and vaptans. Hepatic transplant remains the only definitive treatment for end-stage hepatic diseases in which hyponatremia has occurred.

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Evelyn Nathalia, Madelaine Skolastika Theardy, Sharleen Elvira, Graciella Rosellinny, Andrew Steven Liyanto, Michael Putra Utama and Anton Sumarpo

Behav. 2012; 11 (4):444-451. 6. ALIFRAGIS P., LIAPI A., PARNAVELAS JG. Lhx6 regulates the migration of cortical interneurons from the ventral telencephalon but does not specify their GABA phenotype . J Neurosci. 2004; 24 (24):5643–5648. 7. FLANDIN P., ZHAO Y., VOGT D., JEONG J., LONG J., POTTER G., et al. Lhx6 and Lhx8 coordinately induce neuronal expression of Shh that controls the generation of interneuron progenitors . Neuron. 2011; 70 (5):939–950. 8. SUSSEL L., MARIN O., KIMURA S., RUBENSTEIN JL. Loss of Nkx2.1 homeobox gene function

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Ali Erfani Karimzadeh Toosi

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R.-G. Mihăilă

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Open access

M.I. Costache, Mihai Ioana, Sevastiţa Iordache, D. Ene, Cornelia Alexandra Costache and A. Săftoiu

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