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Anna Majda, Joanna Zalewska-Puchała, Kinga Cholewa, Iwona Bodys-Cupak and Alicja Kamińska

References 1. International Organisation of Migration. World migration 2003 - managing migration. Challenges and responses for people on the move. Vol 2. Geneva: IOM; 2003. 2. Haberman M, Stagge M. Nurse migration: a challenge for the profession and health-care systems. J Public Health. 2010; 18(1): 43-51. http://link.springer.com/ article/10.1007/s10389-009-0279-0, p. 8; dostęp 20.12.2016. 3. Kingma M. Nurses on the move. London: Cornell University Press; 2006. http://link. springer.com/article/10.1007/s10389

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Jerzy Kiszka, Dorota Ozga, Arkadiusz Mach and Romuald Krajewski

-przyjmowania-uchodzcow-fakty-i-mity.html?search=9966 4. Lima P, Bernabe S. Migration and the EU, Challenges, opportunities, the role of EIB. European Investment Bank; 2016, s. 14–19. 5. Fihel A, Kaczmarczyk P, Stefańska R. Recent Trends in International Migration in Poland. Cent East Eur Migr Rev. 2012;1(1):69–90. 6. EESC fact-finding missions on the situation of refugees, as seen by civil society organisations. Mission Report – Poland. European Economic and Social Committee; 2016 s. 1–7. 7. Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011. Warszawa: Zakład

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Jian Fan, Li Zhang, Qi long Wang and Hui Lin

/CCL25 in cutaneous melanoma mediates preferential metastasis to the small intestine. Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14:638-45. 9. Valdivia-Silva, Franco-Barraza J, Silva AL, Pont GD, Soldevila G, Meza I, et al. Garc_a-Zepeda EA. Effect of pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulation on human breast cancer: Implications of chemokine receptor expression in cancer metastasis.Cancer Lett. 2009; 283:176-85. 10. Singh S, Singh UP, Stiles JK, Grizzle WE, Lillard JW Jr. Expression and functional role of CCR9 in prostate cancer cell migration and invasion

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Zuzanna Radosz and Małgorzata Paplaczyk

zawiązane z migracją. Pielęgniarstwo Polskie. 2017; 3 (65): 481-486. 7. Wyrozębska A, Wyrozębski P. Biała emigracja. Szkoła Główna Handlowa. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza; 2014, s. 21-26, 56-63, 80-134. 8. Vujicic M, Zurn P, Diallo K, el al. The role of wages in the migration of health care professionals from developing countries. Hum Resource Health. 2004; 2: 3. 9. Raport Ogólnopolskiego Związku Zawodowego Pielęgniarek i Położnych „Warunki pracy i zatrudnienia pielęgniarek i położnych w Polsce 2015”. Adres online: http

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Barbara Ślusarska, Danuta Zarzycka, Anna Majda and Beata Dobrowolska

Abstract

Introduction. The ongoing process of globalisation is contributing to the reconfiguration of social behaviour, even in small and relatively stable communities. The increased migration of people has led to more-varied groups of patients. The provision of nursing care which is consistent with a given culture, and adjusted to the particular needs of its recipient, is becoming a necessity. The development of cultural competence in the nurse's education, aimed at responding to the needs and demands of the global community, constitutes a current challenge for nursing.

Aim. The aim of this paper is to describe the assumptions put forward within the selected theoretical models of transcultural nursing, the nurses' cultural competences arising from them, and the possibility of their scientific evaluation.

Method. A non-systematic review of the literature based on the thematic selection of content and authors.

Results. The paper presents four basic theories and theoretical models of transcultural nursing which are well described in the literature on nursing, i.e. theories by M. Leininger, L. Purnell, J. Campinha-Bacote, J.N. Giger and R.E. Davidhizar, and their related cultural competences. The theoretical models constitute a foundation for the provision of nursing care to various populations, providing resources to overcome obstacles and challenges in situations where nurses care for patients with various cultural backgrounds. The article also presents the most important tools for the assessment of cultural competences based on the basic theoretical models of transcultural nursing.

Conclusions. Cultural competences in nursing set the direction for investment in self-development for both nurses-theorists and nursing practitioners. Understanding the components of cultural competences and their assessment plays an important and necessary role in the implementation of the concept of multiculturalism in nursing.

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Yi-Qing Lin, Yun Ding and Jiong-Yan Li

1 Introduction 1.1 The recruitment of overseas nurses in the UK The migration of nurses has become a global phenomenon in the 21st century. 1 Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) 2 has highlighted the prominence of nurse migration, especially since 2000, to the UK and the USA. In the UK, a decades-long tradition of recruiting overseas nurses to make up for the shortage of nurses has become entrenched. 3 In recent years, recruiting overseas nurses has become an indispensable task of the Department of Health to alleviate staffing shortages. In

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Chun-Mei Lyu and Li Zhang

chronic schizophrenia in Hong Kong Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2003 38 196 203 7 Yeates NA. Dialogue with global care chain analysis: nurse migration in the Irish context. Feminist Rev 2004;77:79-95. 10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400157 Yeates NA Dialogue with global care chain analysis: nurse migration in the Irish context Feminist Rev 2004 77 79 95 8 Yun Hu, Jiang AL. Nursing shortage in China: state, causes, and strategy. Nurs Outlook 2010;58:122-128. 10.1016/j.outlook.2009.12.002 Yun Hu Jiang AL Nursing shortage in China: state

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Hui Hua, Xiaoping Zhang, Dan Li, Jie Zou and Zhongwei Lv

. 1997; 32:110-. 10. Valster A, Tran NL, Nakada M, Berens ME, Chan AY, Symons M. Cell migration and invasion assays. Methods. 2005; 37:208-15. 11. Kubota Y, Kleinman HK, Martin GR, Lawley TJ. Role of laminin and basement membrane in the morphological differentiation of human endothelial cells into capillary-like structures. J Cell Biol. 1988; 107:1589-98. 12. Soeda S, Kozako T, Iwata K, Shimeno H. Oversulfated fucoidan inhibits the basic fibroblast growth factorinduced tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial

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Xing Liu, Yang Ming, Ligang Chen, Lilei Peng, Qiang Ye, Shuzhan Zheng and Zhongcai Fan

of mesenchymal stem cells pretreated with TGF-alpha improves acute myocardial function. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010; 299: R371-R378. 19. De Becker A, Van Hummelen P, Bakkus M, Vande Broek I, De Wever J, De Waele M, et al. Migration of culture-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells through bone marrow endothelium is regulated by matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3. Haematologica. 2007; 92:440-9.

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Nunthawan Nowwarote, Chenphop Sawangmake, Prasit Pavasant and Thanaphum Osathanon

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, regulates cell growth, differentiation, migration, and survival during development and regeneration [ 1 - 3 ]. bFGF has various roles in stem cell biology including the maintenance of stemness and control of differentiation [ 4 , 5 ]. To maintain stemness, bFGF regulates the self-renewing ability of several cell types [ 6 ]. bFGF signaling plays a crucial role in the self-renewal capacity of human embryonic stem cells (ES) and human