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Paweł Wróbel

’s present . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dolowitz, David P., Steve Buckler and Fionnghuala Sweeney. 2008. Researching online . Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Drinkwater, Stephen and Michał Garapich. 2011. The TEMPO survey of recent Polish migrants in England and Wales . Cardiff: WISERD. Drinkwater, Stephen and Michał Garapich. 2013. “Migration plans and strategies of recent Polish migrants to England and Wales: Do they have any and how do they change?”, Norface Migration , Discussion Paper No. 2013-23. Fielding, Anthony James. 1992

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Ali Karakaş

International Migration Outlook 2013. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from accessed 3/12/2014 Pennycook, Alastair. 1994. The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. New York: Longman. Pilkinton-Pihko, Diane. 2010. English as a lingua franca lecturers’ self-perceptions of their language use. In Anna Mauranen and Niina Hynninen (eds.) English as a Lingua Franca [Special Issue] Helsinki English Studies, 6, 58–74. Preisler, Bent. 2009. Complementary languages: The

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Constant Leung, Jo Lewkowicz and Jennifer Jenkins

Testing: Theories and Practices (pp. 262-281). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Tribble, C., & Wingate, U. (2013). From text to corpus – A genre-based approach to academic literacy instruction. System, 41 (2), 307–321. Vertovec, S. (2006). The emergence of super-diversity in Britain. Working Paper No. 25 . University of Oxford: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Vertovec, S. (2007). Super-diversity and its implications. Ethnic and Racial

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Jennifer Jenkins

. 2005/2009. Why not LFC? In K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk and J. Przedlacka (eds.) English Pronunciation Models. A Changing Scene. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Smit, Ute. 2010. English as a Lingua Franca in Higher Education. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Tomasello, Michael. 2008. Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Vertovec, Steven. 2006. The emergence of super-diversity in Britain. Working Paper No. 25, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford. Vertovec, Steven. 2007. Super-diversity and its implications

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Karolina Rosiak and Michael Hornsby

, motivations and challenges . Inverness: Bòrd na Gàidhlig. Migration Observatory (accessed 6 January 2016). Olbracht-Prondzyński, Cezary and Tomasz Wicherkiewicz (eds.). 2011. The Kashubs: Past and present. Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Wien: Peter Lang. Pritchard-Newcombe, Lynda. 2007. Social context and fluency in L2 learners: The case of Wales. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters. Skehan, Peter. 1991. “Individual

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Eugene Mckendry

). European Commission: Languages - European Language Label. 2008. Szacunek/Meas - Respect. Available at: (accessed 7 July 2017). European Commission (EC). 2008. Green Paper. Migration and mobility: Challenges and opportunities for EU education systems. Brussels: EU. European Commission (EC). 2009. Commission staff working document. Results of the consultation on the education of children from a migrant background. Brussels

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Michelle Macleod and Marsaili Macleod

( ) O’Hanlon, Fiona and Lindsay Paterson. 2015. “Gaelic Education since 1872”, in: Mark Freeman, Robert Anderson and Lindsay Paterson (eds), The Edinburgh History of Education in Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 304-325. Stake, Robert E. 1995. The Art of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Stockdale, Aileen, Bryan MacGregor and Gillian Munro. 2003. Migration

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Zamira Sinaj


Poverty is a complex phenomenon involving various dimensions of not only the lack of goods and services. Being poor means being sick and not being able to see a doctor; all that it means to be unemployed and do not have a secure future; the poor rate it mean to be illiterate, not being able to attend school or abandon eaten; poverty rate means lack of many services and tools for everyday life. It 'hard to give a final definition of poverty because it varies from one period to another and from one country to another. Furthermore, poverty can be measured and evaluated in different ways. The evaluation of poverty based on a multidimensional definition of poverty and deprivation in income or consumption, seen from the flows, but also the non-monetary context poverty defined on my inadequacy of a series of welfare measures that have no income, as in education, health, empowerment, access to basic services and infrastructure.

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Khadija M. Althuwaimer Alrashidi

., & Leong, F. T. (1992). Social Support in Academic Programs and Family Environments: Sex Differences and Role Conflicts for Graduate Students. Journal of Counseling and Development. Nejad, M. N., & Young, A. T. (2014). Female brain drains and women's rights gaps: A gravity model analysis of bilateral migration flows. Bonn: Institute of Labor Study. Nussbaumer, A. (2013). Organizational culture and internationalization: A brief literature review. Ottawa: Canadian Bureau for International Education. Ogbogu, C. O. (2011

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Ariola Kaza

References Albania Culture Marketing Strategy (2010). Unitet Nation, Albania. Albanian Tourism Today (2012) pdf. Retrieved from Avdeeva, T. (2009). Marketing support strategic planning for local development. Journal of the State Tomsk University, Vol. 328, pp.111 - 115. Berxholi, A D. Dhimiter, (1996). Migrations and the socio-economical processes in the transition period, in “Geografical studies” No.10, Tirane