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Yifan Xu, Tianyu Lu, Wu Xu, Yuxiang Dai, Weibang Liang and Wei Jin

patients with colorectal cancer. Med Oncol. 2014;31(11):253. DOI: 10.1007/s12032-014-0253-8 4. Chen C, Zhao Z, Liu Y, Mu D. microRNA-99a is downregulated and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. Oncol Lett. 2015;9(3):1128-34. DOI: 10.3892/ol.2015.2873 5. Zhang J, Jin H, Liu H, Lv S, Wang B, Wang R, et al. MiRNA-99a directly regulates AGO2 through translational repression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogenesis. 2014;3:e97. DOI: 10.1038/oncsis.2014.11 6. Feng Y

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Wang Zhen-fei, Liu Li, Liang Lin and Hao Qin

”, “softening hardness and loosing knot”, and so on. Some low-toxic and nontoxic Chinese herbs have played a role in tumor treatment [ 4 ]. Radix Glehniae is a commonly used nontoxic herb with the functions of “Yang yin qing fei”, promoting the secretion of saliva or body fluid, and “expelling phlegm and arresting cough”. It is useful for treating lung diseases and has been widely used in prescriptions against lung cancer [ 5 ]. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effect of Radix Glehniae on the migration and invasion abilities of lung cancer cells, as well as

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Rui Zhang, Yu Qiao, Qiaoli Ji, Songsong Ma and Jianqiao Li

structure. Inorg Chem 2004, 43, 8215–8217. 19. Nicholson K.L., Arthur S.M., Horne J.S., Garton E.O., Del Vecchio P.A.: Modeling caribou movements: seasonal ranges and migration routes of the Central Arctic Herd. PLoS One 2016, 11, 1–20. 20. Nowak R.M.: Walker’s mammals of the world. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1999, pp. 1936–1937. 21. Payne R.C., Hutchinson J.R., Robilliard J.J., Smith N.C., Wilson A.M.: Functional specialisation of pelvic limb anatomy in horses ( Equus callabus ). J Anat 2005, 206, 557–574. 22. Rankama T

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Katarzyna Wojcicka-Lorenowicz, Krzysztof Kostro and Iwona Taszkun

References 1. Banks K.L., Clarkson T.B.: Naturally occurring dermatomycoses in rabbit. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1967, 151, 926-929. 2. Bendixen G., Soborg H.: A leucocyte migration technique for in vitro detection of cellular (delayed type) hypersensitivity in man. Danish Med Bull 1969, 16, 1-8. 3. Calderon R.A., Hay R.J.: Cell-mediated immunity in experimental murine dermatophytosis. II. Adoptive transfer of immunity to dermatophyte infection by lymphoid cells from donors with acute or chronic

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Małgorzata Samorek-Pieróg, Jacek Karamon and Tomasz Cencek

human migration from endemic regions ( 13 ). It has been globally ranked as the top foodborne parasite by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2014 ( 11 ). T . solium also decreases the market value of pork and makes it hazardous to consume. The WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group recognised this parasite as the main reason of decease due to food-borne diseases, leading to an overall of 2.8 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), in 2015 ( 45 ). T . solium is

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Renata Urban-Chmiel, Rafał Stachura, Piotr Hola, Andrzej Puchalski, Marta Dec and Andrzej Wernicki

transendothelial migration of neutrophils and prevents lung injury in endotoxin-induced airway inflammation. Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol 2003, 28, 199-207. 17. Sabeur K., Ball B.A.: Detection of superoxide anion generation by equine spermatozooa. Am J Vet Res 2006, 67, 701-706. 18. Sactro S.M., Guerrero-Plata A., Suarez-Real G., Adegboyega P.A., Colasurdo G.N., Khan A.M., Garofalo R.P., Casola A.: Antioxidant treatment ameliorates respiratory syncytial virus-induced disease and lung inflammation. Am Resp J Crit Care Med 2006, 174, 1361

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Monika Olech, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Bożenna Kozaczyńska, Piotr Kubiś, Aneta Pluta, Anna Gil and Jacek Kuźmak

Abstract

In the study, a 122 bp fragment of gag gene encoding immunodominant epitope on capsid protein of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) found in sheep was amplified by PCR and analysed by SSCP and sequencing. Out of 30 DNA samples, five showed different migration patterns, demonstrating the individual variations within gag sequences, which were confirmed afterwards by sequence analysis. In two samples nucleotide changes yielded amino acid substitutions highlighting the conservative nature of gag encoded immunoreactive epitope but also potencial insensitivity of a single-strain-based immunoassay.

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P. Danielová, Ľ. Korytár and T. Csank

REFERENCES 1. Ashraf, U., Ye, J., Ruan, X., Wan, S., Zhu, B., Cao, S., 2015: Usutu virus: An emerging flavivirus in Europe. Viruses , 7, 219—238. 2. Berthold, P., 1993: Bird Migration: A General Survey . Oxford University Press, Oxford, 239 pp. 3. Buckley, A., Dawson, A., Moss, R. S., Hinsley, S. A., Bellamy, P. E., Gould, E. A., 2003: Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK. Journal of General Virology , 84, 2807—2817. 4. Cleaveland, S., Laurenson, M. K., Taylor, L. H

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Maria Dynowska, Anna Biedunkiewicz, Iwona Kisicka, Elżbieta Ejdys, Dariusz Kubiak and Ewa Sucharzewska

Abstract

The paper presents mycological studies conducted jointly with ornithologists on the epidemiology of mycoses and the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of fungi that colonise the selected onthocenoses in healthy, wild migratory birds. Aquatic ecosystem populations of healthy birds include a percentage of carriers of potential zoo- and anthropopathogens, and this study's purpose was to determine the percentage. The studies were performed on swabs sampled in vivo (during spring and autumn migrations) from the beak and cloaca of nine species of Charadriiformes in two age categories. Macro- and microcultures of fungi were prepared according to the standards for diagnostic mycological laboratories. From the 450 birds examined, fungi were isolated from 130 (26.5%) individuals. The sampling yielded 272 yeast isolates: 170 (62.5%) from the beak and 102 (37.5%) from the cloaca. The isolates represented 23 species, among which C. albicans, C. neoformans, and R. rubra were predominant. In both onthocenoses in young and adult birds, more fungi were recorded in autumn than in spring. As many as 15 species are included in the biosafety level classification, of which seven are categorised as category 2 and one as category 3.

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Tanveer Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Akhtar Ali, Asif Nadeem, Zia Ur Rehman, Muneeb M. Musthafa and Faiz MMT Marikar

Abstract

Introduction: Eight microsatellite loci were used to define genetic diversity among five native water buffalo breeds in Pakistan.

Material and Methods: Blood samples (10 mL) from 25 buffaloes of each of the Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundhi, and Azi-Kheli breeds were collected aseptically from the jugular vein into 50 ml Falcon tubes containing 200 μl of 0.5 M EDTA. The phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA and the regions were amplified for microsatellite analysis. The eight microsatellite markers ETH10, INRA005, ILSTS029, ILSTS033, ILSTS049, ILSTS052, ETH225, and CSSM66 were analysed.

Results: The effective number of alleles across all loci was as usual lower than the observed values with a mean value of 2.52 alleles per locus. The overall allele frequency varied from 0.0041 for alleles B, I, and J over respective loci ILSTS052, INRA005, and ILSTS029 to 0.80 for allele H over locus ILSTS029. The average observed and expected heterozygosity values across all polymorphic loci in all studied buffalo breeds were 0.43 and 0.53, respectively. The overall value for polymorphic information content of considered microsatellite markers was 0.53, suggesting their appropriateness for genetic diversity analysis in buffalo. The mean Fis value was 0.13 and all loci except ILSTS049 were found significantly deviated from HWE, most likely due to non-random breeding. The five buffalo populations were genetically less diverse as indicated by a small mean Fst value (0.07). The average gene flow (Nm) indicative for population migration was calculated as 3.31. Nei’s original measures of genetic distance (Ds) revealed ancient divergence of the Nili and Azi-Kheli breeds (Ds = 0.1747) and recent divergence of the Nili and Ravi breeds (Ds = 0.0374).

Conclusion: These estimates of genetic diversity were seen to coincide with phenotypic differentiation among the studied buffalo breeds. The present study reports the first microsatellite marker-based genetic diversity analysis in Pakistani buffalo breeds, and might facilitate similar studies in other livestock breeds of Pakistan.