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Rafał Dudała

Bibliography Buchowski M., Kołbon I., Współcześni wędrowcy: od cudzoziemca do obywatela , “Czas Kultury” 2008, No. 4. Castels S., Miller M.J., Migracje we współczesnym świecie , Warszawa 2011. Clark M., Współczesne Włochy 1871-2006 , Warszawa 2009. Del Boca D., Venturini A., Italian Migration , “IZA Discussion Paper” 2003, No. 938. Duszczyk M., Wyzwania polskiej polityki migracyjnej a doświadczenia międzynarodowe , [in:] Polityka migracyjna jako instrument promocji zatrudnienia i ograniczania bezrobocia , edit. P. Kaczmarczyk

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Andrzej Chodubski

Abstract

The study indicates that contemporary migration movements of the population in Europe are typical of the cultural and civilizational development of the world. Their main cause involves the problem of meeting needs, especially in terms of money and living. The institutions of the European Union, which stress the guarantee of the rights of a human and a citizen, attach significant importance to them. The location of immigrants is different in various European countries. The experience of the past plays an important role in this respect (migration tradition of states and nations). In terms of the recognition of the principle of the EU that European unity is formed by its cultural diversity, migrants (immigrants and emigrants) are subject to the general processes of cultural and civilizational transformation.

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Aleksandra Kruk

Abstract

The fact that about 4000 immigrants are placed in Cottbus, situated 192 km from Poznań and 83 km from Zielona Góra, makes us feel it is necessary to analyze modus operandi of the entities legitimizing or delegitimizing the Open Door policy of the Chancellor Angela Merkel. To explain their position, political actors refer to the diverse narratives that Rolf Peter Sieferle classified as: the refugee narrative; a narrative recalling the demographic problem; a narrative referring to problems in the labor market and a lack of qualified employees; a narrative referring to the essence of multiculturalism. Difficulties in absorbing immigrants caused a discussion about fatigue both in political parties and in the media, but they showed the potential of social initiatives and movements, for example the organization “Future of the Fatherland”, led by Hans-Christoph Berndt. His views combined with the statements of Dietmar Woidke, the Prime Minister of Brandenburg, or Jörg Steinbach, the President of the Brandenburg University of Technology, reflect the diversity of the assessment of migration policy in a micro-scale.

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Mirosław Matyja

Abstract

Switzerland consists of different regions, cultures and languages. The minorities in Switzerland are in the first place ethno-linguistic minorities, whose are unified by a common language. Therefore, since the foundation of the Confederation in 1848 the Helvetic state has been considered a multilingual country. The confederation and cantons are obliged to protect linguistic minorities. The grounds of the Swiss social structure, with traditional multiculturalism and four national languages are two principles: language freedom (Sprachenfreiheit) and territoriality (Territorialitätsprinzip). Switzerland has no official state religion. Predominant religion is Christianity, the largest religious minorities is established by Islam. The largest Christian denominations are Catholic Church (37.7%) and Swiss Reformed Church (25.5%). The influx of new cultural minorities to Switzerland began aXer the Second World War and was directly connected with economic migration, with the large influx of gastarbeiters from southern European countries and refugees from the Third World and from the former Yugoslavia. International law includes the protection of national, yet not cultural minorities. In Switzerland the protection of national minorities is also based on international standards. The necessity for systematic integration policy in Switzerland appeared in the nineties of the twentieth century, after removing the anti-immigration tendencies and hostile attitude towards foreigners. There is a conflict of interest between democracy and state under the rule of law, and between majoritarian democratic politics and liberal principles. The conflict can be controlled; however it can not be resolved. The principle of the Swiss “unity in multiplicity” is best reflected in the multiculturalism and multilingualism of Switzerland, but also a relatively high percentage of the foreigners.