Mikołaj Herbst, Paweł Kaczmarczyk and Piotr Wójcik
The goal of this paper is to better understand the drivers of interregional migration of well-educated individuals. Human capital is commonly considered as an important factor of economic growth. Economic theory assumes that human capital affects growth by influencing labour productivity ( Lucas 1988 ) and by determining the ability of the economy to innovate ( Nelson and Phelps 1966 ). Numerous empirical research studies have confirmed the positive effect of human capital stock and its quality on growth rates at both country and regional level
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number of enterprises and gmina income − total and own income ( Tab. 1 ).
Selected indicators characterising ROF in 2016
Gmina total income
Gmina own income
in km 2
ROF = 100%
2012 = 100
Net migration per 1000 population
2012 = 100
in million zl
2012 = 100
in million zl
in % of total income
Oczkowice deposit is located in the region with a complex geological structure resulting, inter alia, from the existence of deep tectonic trenches ( Deczkowski and Gajewska 1980 , 152, Widera 2007 ), as well as the occurrence of highly mineralized groundwater under coal seams ( Łaszcz-Filakowa 1978 , 29–127, Przybyłek 1986 , 146, Przybyłek and Górski 2016, 185), which favours the migration of these waters ( Bojarski 1996 ).
Due to the fact that in 2018, the mine exploitation project was not yet developed, in this report, the basis for calculating external costs for
Immigration has been a heavily disputed subject in developed countries for many years, and it became a pivotal one in the last decade. Among questions regarding race, culture or language, economic dimension lately became one of the most frequently discussed. Immigration is alleged to have significant impact on the labour market, real estate prices or industrial output. Additionally, questions about the fiscal effects of migration and its impact on the welfare state appear more often in the policy debate. There are at least three reasons for
There is no universal model of local economic development. Development strategies vary from country to country, city to city, and depend on the level of development, political system, development potential, social values, available resources, etc. Republic of Srpska faces with significant differences in the level of development of its territory. Local communities in the Republic of Srpska are increasingly facing with several obligations - providing support to business, creating a favorable business environment for attracting investment and providing an adequate infrastructure. The biggest problems that most of municipalities in the Republic of Srpska encounter are reflected in the emptying of cities, the departure of young people, low average wages and high unemployment rates. They are trying to solve these problems by attracting investments. However, it is very important to say that an effective investment policy must be based on the creation of new enterprises with capitalintensive production. The average wage level in local communities of the Republic of Srpska is low, due to the fact that most of the investments have a labor-intensive character. The subject and aim of this paper is to determine the competitiveness and level of development of local communities in the Republic of Srpska. Municipal competitiveness will be higher if it has a positive trade balance, higher average wages, high natural increase, low unemployment rate and positive migration. Higher natural increase, favorable trade balance and low unemployment rate are in direct correlation with the degree of local development. The results of the research have shown that the key problems of underdeveloped municipalities in the Republic of Srpska are demographic aging, population migration, underdeveloped infrastructure, high unemployment rates, low average wages, low level of investment, low export activity, weak institutional capacities, etc.
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