References Alatalo, R.V., Gustafsson, L. & Lundberg A. (1984). Why do young passerine birds have shorter wings than older birds? Ibis, 126, 410−415. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1984.tb00264.x. Alerstam, T. (1993). Bird migration . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arizaga, J., Campos, F. & Alonso D. (2006). Variations in wing morphology among subspecies might reflect different migration distances in Bluethroat. Ornis Fenn. , 83, 162−169. van Balen, J.H. & Speek B.J. (1976). Een
Jarosław K. Nowakowski, Jacek Chruściel and Krzysztof Muś
This paper is the first critical review of the diversity of the Ukrainian adventive flora, which has spread in agricultural habitats in the 21st century. The author’s annotated checklist contains the data on 740 species, subspecies and hybrids from 362 genera and 79 families of non-native weeds. The floristic comparative method was used, and the information was generalised into some categories of five characteristic features: climamorphotype (life form), time and method of introduction, level of naturalisation, and distribution into 22 classes of three habitat types according to European Nature Information System (EUNIS). Two assessments of the ecological risk of alien plants were first conducted in Ukraine according to the European methods: the risk of overcoming natural migration barriers and the risk of their impact on the environment. The exposed impact of invasive alien plants on ecosystems has a convertible character; the obtained information confirms a high level of phytobiotic contamination of agricultural habitats in Ukraine. It is necessary to implement European and national documents regarding the legislative and regulative policy on invasive alien species as one of the threats to biotic diversity.
Nikolay Vladimirovich Onistratenko, Elena Anatolievna Ivantsova, Andrey Alexandrovich Denysov and Denys Anatolyevich Solodovnikov
Technogenic contamination of ecosystems is one of the main dangers of our time. In order to reduce the harmful effects of this contamination and to provide cost-effective and environmentally safe food production methods, we are forced to look for ways of reliable analysis of the environmental situation, the selection systems of animal husbandry and regulations for the degree of impact of pollutants on the elements of the agroecosystem. This article presents the results of studies aimed at assessing the plight of the environment of a large industrial centre, and its anthropogenic impacts on every element of the suburban ecosystems. It presents data on maintenance and migration of anthropogenous pollutants in the trophic chains of pasturable ecosystems of the suburb of Volgograd. The authors have listed the industrial enterprises as the key sources of pollution. The features of the distribution of xenobiotics in the tissues and organs of calves and heifers of different breeds were analysed in the study. Conclusions were drawn on the accumulation of heavy metals and arsenic in cattle, and the impact of this factor on the quality of production. A comparative assessment of the resistance of different breeds of cows to the action of toxicants in the environment of the Lower Volga region was carried out. Ways to decrease the impact of pollutants on the cattle organism have also been suggested. The article pays attention to the environmental pollution of the industrial centre, the influence of these processes on all elements of an ecosystem including humans, and offers ways to minimize the damage.
Jaroslav Boháč and Karel Matějka
Communities of epigeic beetles were studied using pitfall trapping on 10 plots with the different stage of decline and clear-cut plots without coarse woody debris. Species richness (number of all species, S), total species diversity as the Shannon-Wiener’s index (H) and equitability (e) were calculated in the DBreleve. The Ward’s method of hierarchical agglomerative classification with Euclidean distance was used for the differentiation of the communities on the plots. Species data for this analyse were represented by logarithm-transformed activities [log(x+1)]. The single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical testing of differences in structural parameters (e.g. species richness and diversity) amongst distinguished groups of the plots. The species diversity and activity differs on glades without trees and coarse woody debris. The highest number of species was found in clear-cut areas. The lowest number of species was found on the plots with the living forest particularly invaded by bark beetle. This fact is caused by the fact that the clear-cut plots are invaded by ubiquitous and anthropotolerant species with good migration possibilities. These species are adapted to habitats without trees and are able to leave even in the habitats with very sparse or without vegetation. Species living in the forest even under the bark beetle attack are often stenotopic and adapted to the forest microclimate (higher humidity and low average temperature). These species are very sensitive to great difference in the daily changes of microclimate. The study of beetle communities support the hypothesis that the keeping of dead tree stands on plots after bark beetle outbreak is better for biodiversity conservation than the cutting down of trees and the abolishment of stems.
Deposit salt in Romania has extremely important reserves, considered even inexhaustible at the current exploitation level. The biggest salt resources are found in the intra-Carpathian arch, represented by Transylvania and Maramures. Most sources of salt outcrops are disseminated on the edge of the Transylvania Depression, in the diapir folds formed following salt migration. The salt mines – Turda, Praid, Ocna Mures, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu, Cojocna, Ocna Sugatag – represented an important source of incomes, reason for which important human settlements formed around them. All these localities have turned nowadays into balneal and climacteric resorts that fully use the beneficial effect of the atmosphere within galleries (Praid, Turda). The most important incomes from tourism are represented by the galleries of the mines of Turda (one of the 10 wonders of the modern world) and Praid. The balneal and climacteric resorts also developed around the salt lakes installed in the areas of collapsed mines: Sovata, Ocna Sibiu, Ocna Dej, Cojocna. The most well known human settlements and the most important balneal and climacteric resorts, implicitly, are disseminated on the external branch of the Transylvania Depression (Sovata, Praid, Ocna Mures, Baile Figa, Cojocna thermae, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu) and of the Maramures Depression (Ocna Sugata, Costiui, Vad). The oldest mining exploitation is situated at Figa (county of Bistrita-Nasaud) was founded around the year AD 3000. From this point of view, it is one of the oldest mining exploitations on Earth. The existence of the world-important archaeological site can invigorate the development of the surrounding localities, but mostly of the city of Beclean.
Szilvia Orosz, Ágnes Szénási, János Puskás, Rita Ábrahám, Andrea Fülöp and Gábor Jenser
thunderstorms. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 39, 131-136.  Glick, P. A. (1939), The distribution of insects, spiders and mites in the air. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 673.  Klimt, von K. (1971), Faunistisch-systematische Studien an ungarischen Phlaeothripiden (Thysanoptera). Folia Entomologica Hungarica 24, 47-66.  Johnson, C. G. (1969), Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Methuen and Co. Ltd, London.  Jenser, G. (1973), Observation on the autumn mass
Gheorghe Romanescu, Alin Mihu-Pintilie and Donatella Carboni
from the seismic data. Marine Geology, 157, p. 249–265. Dolukhanov P.M., Arslanov K.A., (2009), Ecological crises and early human migrations in the Black Sea. Quaternary International, 197, p. 35–42. Dolukhanov P.M., Kadurin S.V., Larchenkov P., (2009), Dynamics of the coastal North Black sea area in Late Pleistocene and Holocene and Early Human Dispersal. Quaternary International, 197, p. 27–34. Faraci G., (2016) Ensuring the Conservative Process: The Roman Walls of Lugo Maintenance Plan. Conservation and Management of Archaeological
Maryam Rashidi, Atefeh Chamani and Minoo Moshtaghi
References Alerstam, T. (2003). Bird migration speed. In P. Berthold, E. Guinner & E. Sonnenschein (Eds.), Avian migration (pp. 253−267). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-05957-9_17. Antze, B. & Koper N. (2018). Noisy anthropogenic infrastructure interferes with alarm responses in Savannah sparrows ( Passerculus sandwichensis ). Royal Society Open Science , 5(5), 172168. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.172168. Blinkova, O. & Shupova T. (2017). Bird communities and vegetation composition in the urban forest ecosystem: correlations and
Irina Kuznetsova, Konstantin Bogolitsyn, Nikolay Larionov, Tatiana Boytsova, Irina Palamarchuk and Andrew Aksenov
. Ladd, J.N. & Butler J.H. (1975). Humus-enzyme systems and synthetic organic polymer-enzyme analogs. In E.A. Paul & A.D. McLaren (Eds.), Soil Biochemistry, vol. 4 (pp. 143−194). New York: Marcel Dekker. Linnik, P.N. (1986). Forms of migration of metals in fresh surface waters. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat. Minkina, T.M., Pinsky, J.L., Samokhin, A.P. & Statovoy A.A. (2005): The absorption of copper, zinc and lead an ordinary chernozem at monoelementnom and polyelement pollution. Agricultural Chemistry, 8, 58−64. Misra, V
Ion Constantin, Baltag Emanuel Ştefan, Ursu Adrian, Sfîcă Lucian, Ignat Alina Elena and Stoleriu Cristian Constantin
by the action of Mediterranean cyclones. Lucrările Seminarului Geografic ,,Dimitrie Cantemir" 39(1):11-24. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15551%2Flsgdc.v39i1.1012 19. Gauthreaux SA Jr., Michi JE, Belser GC (2005) The Temporal Spatial Structure of the Atmosphere and its influence on Bird Migration Strategies. In: Greenberg R, Marra PP (ed) Birds of two worlds: the ecology and evolution of migration. The john Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 183 20. González-Gajardo A, Sepúlveda PV, Schlatter R (2009) Waterbird Assemblages and Habitat