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Sarmīte Barvika, Edgars Bondars and Santa Bondare

Abstract

Urban shrinkage is among of the most dangerous current risks for the preservation of liveability (e.g. residential function) in formerly prosperous historical residential and industrial districts. The planning for shrinkage emerged only in the 21st century in order to manage and prevent growing urban decay, depopulation and housing crisis through the application of smart structural adjustment policies and planning instruments for formerly heavily industrialised North American and Asian cities. Both shrinkage and liveability planning are still very “fuzzy” concepts and have been applied in ways that are not always consistent (e.g. for measuring decline, migration, demographics). However, remains the question of what (methods or approaches) would prevent (control) this well-known but evidently “wicked” and still less explored phenomenon of “loss of liveability” in a historical built environment. This paper aims to review the urban shrinkage and liveability problematic and prevention solutions (methods) based on studies of theory and practice of urban planning.

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Barbara Przybyszewska-Jarmińska

Muzyczne kontakty dworów polskich Wazów i austriackich Habsburgów w świetle dawniejszych i nowych badań

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Toms Skadiņš

R eferences 1. Sykora, L., Stanilov, K. (eds.) Confronting Suburbanization: Urban Decentralization in Postsocialist Central and Eastern Europe . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. 360 p. 2. Novotny, L. Urban Development and Migration Processes in The Urban Region of Bratislava from The Post-Socialist Transformation until The Global Economic Crisis. Urban Geography , Vol. 37, Issue 7, 2016, pp. 1009–1029. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2016.1139413 3. Sroda-Murawska, S., Dymitrow. M. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series . Torun

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Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series

The Journal of Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun

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Tibor Farkas and Erika Hronyecz

Abstract

Nowadays, international and national events clearly point out the need for cooperation between different defense organizations in crisis and emergency situations (disaster events, migration issues, and other emergencies) for successful tasks. The fundamental basis of this cooperation is always the command and control activity supported by modern technical equipment that ensures the coordinated implementation of tasks. The key, human element of info-communication support is the preparation and training of the successful professionals. In this paper, the authors intend to present the importance of vocational training.

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Tamás Kardos and Dénes Nimród Kutasi

Abstract

An HVAC system contains heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment used in office or industrial buildings. The goal of this research is to design a controller for the process of cooling an office building that is made up of three rooms. The desired room temperature can be achieved by controlling the fans making up the fan coil units and the cooling medium’s temperature. By these means the building connected to the electrical grid becomes a smart office. The used building model includes several dynamically changing interior and exterior heat sources affecting the inner climate, which introduces a level of uncertain prediction into the system. We have determined the controller’s performance by the rate of deviation from the expected temperature, the consumed electrical energy and the generated noise. The controller was created in Matlab Simulink with the possibility of migration to a Siemens PLC.

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Daniela Szymańska and Mirosław Wylon

the directions and dynamics of demographic changes, the shorter the distances in general and for cities of over 100,000 are similar, but, from 1990 onwards, the trajectories of big cities show a clear and dramatic turnaround, and a greater decrease in population from 1990 to 2016 ( Fig. 2C) . The main factors in changes in urban population in the study period are natural increase, migration balance, real increase and number of cities. After World War II (WWII) there was a rapid growth in urbanisation in Poland. The characteristic trait of Polish urbanisation in the

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Sílvia Sousa

persistently and prevalently lost population in the period 1991–2001–2011, i.e. the cities that lost population between 1991 and 2001 and between 2001 and 2011 (Beauregard, 2009). 2 Research materials and methods According to the World Bank, Portugal had the fifth largest population loss between 2013 and 2014: low fertility, negative net migration, and an aging population translated into 59,000 inhabitants fewer in a one-year period (-0.57%) ( Albuquerque and Rosa, 2015 ). The president of the Portuguese Association of Demography emphasises that this accumulated

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Tomor Çela and Ibrahim Ramadani

become construction sites. The changes in land use patterns have also affected other processes such as: reducing productive land resources; erosion; local climate; and so on. The population and settlements in hilly and mountainous areas are shrinking due to migration and settlement in the highly fertile lowland areas. The number of residents in these settlements is increasing and they are expanding rapidly, occupying larger areas. In the past, the peripheral area around settlements (towns and villages) has served as a transition area between urban landscape and

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Tembi M. Tichaawa and Sakhile Moyo

status and income ( Tichaawa, Mhlanga, 2015a ), are influencers of the way in which tourism is perceived. However, given the uneven nature of the composition of the geography of community residents in cities, and the changing migration mobilities, their profiles are likely to change over time. The above yet again highlights the significance of the current analysis in terms of resident perceptions of attitude and support for tourism development, requiring planning, monitoring and the evaluation of policies by the destination managers and authorities concerned, as was