Results of the study showed that cultivation of the grey-brown (chestnut) and mountain brown soils under the grape plantation changes their morphogenetic and morphological characteristics in arid subtropical climatic condition. Performed cultivation caused migration of humus into the deeper soil layers. The denser horizon formed under a soft layer. This results in a change of the soil chemical structure and water-physical properties. These changes manifested themselves under irrigative condition.
Technical solutions for water damming structures in forest streams
Small dams are basic elements of water retention systems in agricultural landscape and in forest ecosystems. Despite small water raising and location across small streams, these constructions should conform to security regulations and be resistant to destructive effect of flowing water. Moreover, they shouldn't be a strange element to the natural landscape of the river valley or forest ecosystem. Attention is also focussed in this paper on providing unobstructed flow in natural and artificial streams and on the possibility of migration for aquatic organisms. Examples of dams that do not hamper fish migration are given.
Sorption capacity and the energy of phosphorus adsorption on muck and peat deposits were studied in peat- -muck soil profile from a lowland peatland in the Kuwasy object. Soils of the area are characterised by a laminar structure which results in variable sorption properties of peat deposits of different origin, degree of humification (decomposition - R) and transformation of organic matter of upper muck layers (degree of mucking - Z). There was a relationship between the maximum phosphorus adsorption calculated from the Langmuir isotherm (b) and adsorption energy (k) and the type and degree of humification of peat and transformation of muck mass. Muck deposits of the maximum sorption capacity similar to that of peat deposits bind phosphorus less intensively than peats. One may expect that different sorption capacity and the strength of phosphorus binding will effect in different migration of inorganic and organic P compounds in soil profile and their transfer to ground waters.
Józef Koc, Szymon Kobus and Katarzyna Glińska-Lewczuk
The significance of oxbow lakes for the ecosystem of afforested river valleys
The interest in significance of forest areas in water quality improvement has been increasing since creation of biogeochemical barriers became effective tools against the input of pollutants to surface water from diffuse sources. Along meandering river valleys, numerous floodplain lakes often appear as valuable water ecosystems but of advanced eutrophy. Their trophic status depends not only on the hydrological connectivity with the river but also land use in the direct vicinity of the reservoir. Research on water ecosystems in the postglacial river valleys in northern Poland contributed to identification of the role of woodland area in pollutants migration in the valley of the łyna River.
The study on the ecosystem concerned seasonal variation in nutrient concentrations (N and P) and bottom sediments properties in relation to hydrological conditions (water level fluctuations). Based on the collected data we attempted prediction of the reservoir lifetime. Depending on hydrological, geological and topographic conditions the origin of water supply of the basin is changing. Annual water level fluctuations in the range of 200 cm cause the basin capacity variation as much as 5 times. Nevertheless, water quality in the lake was conditioned by the riverine supply, the significant share in the lake feeding has groundwater supply from hillslope aquifer and seepage through alluvial aquifer. Contribution of every origin supply depends on river flow rate and valley water level, it depends on alluvial ground formations permeability and relief. Hillslope erosion of the concave bank was responsible for high nitrogen and phosphorus outflows. The research showed that primary and secondary production and freshets contributed to intensive deposition of bottom sediments in oxbow lake. The increase rate of sediment determined on the base of matter balance was 10 times higher than deposition rate of bottom sediments in glacial lakes. The accelerated processes of silting-up and shallowing and terrestialization of the valuable ecosystems indicate the necessity of floodpain lakes protection due to ecological functions they play in forestry landscape.
Jan Brzozowski, Zygmunt Miatkowski, Damian Śliwiński, Karolina Smarzyńska and Maria Śmietanka
Application of SWAT model to small agricultural catchment in Poland
Poland is obliged, like the other EU countries, to implement the Water Framework Directive - WFD (2000/60/WE) by the end of 2015. The main objective of WFD is to provide normative quality of all water resources. To reach this goal reduction of water polluter emission to the environment is needed. Our project focuses on pollution from agricultural sources which share in global pollution is high and growing still. As a pilot area, where the WFD is going to be implemented, small agricultural Zgłowiączka catchment was chosen.
The state monitoring of surface water quality for the catchment is conducted in three points along the Zgłowiaczka River. In each of these three points, nitrates concentration periodically significantly exceeds the allowable value of 50 mg NO3·dm-3. The highest average monthly values of nitrates concentration in years 1990-2007 occur in February, March and April, which indicates on agriculture as a source of pollution. The Zgłowiaczka catchment is an area where reduction of nitrogen run-off from agricultural lands to water resources is especially needed. The main topic of the research carried out in the Polish-Norwegian project is to propose different means for reduction of migration of nitrate to surface water based on modeling approach. In the paper a conception of creating buffer zones using SWAT model is presented. We considered fitting the buffer zone width, depending on the flow rate of water flowing from the fields to the stream. Using SWAT model interface a map of potential flow under the conditions of the intensive precipitation was generated. The next step was distribution over the whole Zgłowiączka catchment, places with high density of the temporal streams network. It was done using GRASS program. The map of stream "density" was done by assigning the raster number which is the sum of raster in the neighbourhood (radius of neighbourhood smaller or equal 25 raster). The choice of the most endangered subbasins was done on base of visual evaluation of the surface flow density map.
It is visible in the results that filter strips on endangered areas are far more effective and therefore more required. If the width of the vegetated buffer strips is not sufficient, it will not attain the desired effectiveness. Conversely, if the width is too great, it will cause agricultural land waste, preventing farmers' interest in cooperating with environmental preservation efforts. For the above reasons, it is important to set a reasonable width range. According to the results we are suggesting wider buffer zones in endangered subbasins and narrow in other subbasins.
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Adam Koćmit, Marek Podlasiński, Małgorzata Roy, Tomasz Tomaszewicz and Justyna Chudecka
wodna i jej wpływ na gleby w małej zlewni leśno-rolniczej w dorzeczu Rurzycy w strefie czołowomorenowej fazy pomorskiej zlodowacenia Vistulian. (Water erosion and its effect on soils in a small field-forest catchment in the Rurzyca basin in frontal morainic zone of the Pomeranian phase of Vistulian glaciation). Szczecin: AR pr. dokt. maszyn.
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Anabella Ferral, Velia Solis, Alejandro Frery, Alejandro Orueta, Ines Bernasconi, Javier Bresciano and Carlos M. Scavuzzo
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