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Sarmīte Barvika, Edgars Bondars and Santa Bondare

Abstract

Urban shrinkage is among of the most dangerous current risks for the preservation of liveability (e.g. residential function) in formerly prosperous historical residential and industrial districts. The planning for shrinkage emerged only in the 21st century in order to manage and prevent growing urban decay, depopulation and housing crisis through the application of smart structural adjustment policies and planning instruments for formerly heavily industrialised North American and Asian cities. Both shrinkage and liveability planning are still very “fuzzy” concepts and have been applied in ways that are not always consistent (e.g. for measuring decline, migration, demographics). However, remains the question of what (methods or approaches) would prevent (control) this well-known but evidently “wicked” and still less explored phenomenon of “loss of liveability” in a historical built environment. This paper aims to review the urban shrinkage and liveability problematic and prevention solutions (methods) based on studies of theory and practice of urban planning.

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Toms Skadiņš

R eferences 1. Sykora, L., Stanilov, K. (eds.) Confronting Suburbanization: Urban Decentralization in Postsocialist Central and Eastern Europe . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014. 360 p. 2. Novotny, L. Urban Development and Migration Processes in The Urban Region of Bratislava from The Post-Socialist Transformation until The Global Economic Crisis. Urban Geography , Vol. 37, Issue 7, 2016, pp. 1009–1029. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2016.1139413 3. Sroda-Murawska, S., Dymitrow. M. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series . Torun

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Rafał Kobis

the reign of other Muslim rulers – the Almoravid – and today it is one of the few preserved examples of the magnificent architecture of this famous dynasty ( Chebaiki-Adli & Chabbi-Chemrouk 2015 : 117). Nevertheless, the modern history of the city begins with the arrival of the High Port Authority over the African Mediterranean coast. There was also another important event that shaped Muslim Algiers. This event was the mass migration of Moors and Jews from Spanish Andalusia. Both events had a tremendous impact on the city, not only sociological but also urban and

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Gérard-François Dumont

incomplete) literature review presented above, we can see the need to use the new term urban demographic transition , which could combine the results of studies on both demographic and urban transition. This is supposed to shed more light on factors behind the rise in the urbanisation rate observed since the beginning of the 19 th century, resulting from the combination of these two transitions, at the same time from changes in mortality and natality patterns as well as migration. In other words, without migration and especially: rural emigration, the increase in the

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Aleksandra Leśniak

become the dream of a perfect family life ( Zuziak 2005 : 22; Sobiech-Grabka 2015 : 28). From the demographic point of view, suburbanisation is a process triggered by the migration of a better educated, richer and frequently younger population from central districts to the suburbs. As a result, there is an increasing structural disparity between the inhabitants of the central parts of cities and their suburbs ( Zuziak 2005 : 22; Bański 2008 : 38; Chmielewski 2016 : 98–99). Economic incentives are important elements that influence suburbanisation. These include: tax

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Martin Barthel and Ewelina Barthel

Prologue – the role of closed/open borders in transnational suburbanisation When we talk nowadays about borders, the terms ‘hard’ or ‘soft’ are often used in the media not to describe the physical form of the divides, but the ability to cross them. This is mainly the case when the debate tackles migration or the state of the Irish Border after Brexit. However, scholars like P. Khanna recognise a striving towards a global renaissance based on connections, creating a ‘Connectography’ ( Khanna 2016 : xvi). For this author connectivity has replaced spatial

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Piotr Zierke

number of inhabitants confirm the above observation. Since that moment, based on the data provided by the Polish Statistical Office, we observe a gradual decrease in the city’s population. The process of migration from central districts of cities to the suburbs has been – due to its long history – examined in detail by both foreign and Polish scientists. The works of P. Hall (1971) , L. H. Klaassen, W. T. M. Molle & J. Paelinck (1981) as well as L. van den Berg et al. (1982) that developed the concepts of cycles and phases of transformation of urban regions

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Ágnes Erőss

Ehrkamp, P. (2005) Placing identities: Transnational Practices and local attachments of Turkish immigrants in Germany, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(2), 345-364. 10.1080/1369183042000339963 Ehrkamp P. 2005 Placing identities: Transnational Practices and local attachments of Turkish immigrants in Germany Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31 2 345 364 Eörsi, L. (2009) A Corvin közi emléktáblák. [in Hungarian]. Available from: http://www.historia.hu/userfiles/files/2009-0910/Eorsi.pdf [accessed: 10.08.2014] Eörsi L. 2009 A Corvin közi emléktáblák

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Katarzyna Suszyńska and Zuzanna Rataj

Poznań (measured by the total number of applications) was gradually increasing – and achieved a peak in 2016 (898 applications). In 2017, the number of applications filed increased to 966, yet the number of contracts entered was unknown at the time of the paper’s preparation. At the same time, the number of applications meeting the criteria declined as a result of changes in the allocation principles. In 2012–2016 the number of municipal dwellings decreased due to a lower number of housing units repossessed as a result of natural migration which had been declining

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Edyta Gheribi

foodservice businesses Performance in the foodservice industry in Poland is closely related to the general- and regional economy which in turn is dependent on macro trends. Factors favoring the development of foodservice companies in big cities are also associated with the development of urbanization, an increasing share of the population living in urban areas ( Gheribi 2015 ). Most urbanization is the result of net rural to urban migration. The most important factor for the development of foodservice in Poland is the level of citizens’ wealth, which is above all affected