form żelaza i manganu z wód podziemnych, Ochrona Środowiska, 1/60 (1996) 25-26. 4. Civardi J., Tompeck M.: Iron and manganese removal handbook. Second Edition. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association 2015. 5. Dempsey B. A., Ganho R. M., O Melia C. R.: The coagulation of humic substances by means of aluminum salts, Journal American Water Works Association 76/4(1984) 141-150. 6. Edzwald J., Perntsky D., Paramenter W.: Polyaluminum coagulants for drinking water treatment, chemistry and selection, Chemical Water and
Joanna Jordanowska and Monika Jakubus
The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.
It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.
Agnieszka Bok, Joanna Guziałowska-Tic and Wilhelm Jan Tic
The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides). The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.
References 1. Albrektiene R., Rimeika M., Lubyte E.: The removal of iron-organic complexes from drinking water using coagulation process, The 8 th International Conference May 19-20, Vilnius, Lithuania 2011. 2. Ciupa R., Dzienis L.: Zastosowanie KMnO4 i ClO2 do usuwania organicznych form żelaza i manganu z wód podziemnych, Ochrona Środowiska, 1/60 (1996) 25-26. 3. Civardi J., Tompeck M.: Iron and manganese removal handbook. Second Edition. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association 2015. 4
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Sylwia Myszograj, Artur Stadnik and Ewelina Płuciennik-Koropczuk
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Michał Ćwiąkała, Andrzej Greinert, Jakub Kostecki and Leszek Rafalski
Interscience, New York 1996. 24. Mohan, D.; Chander, S. Single, binary, and multicomponent sorption of iron and manganese on lignite . J Colloid Interf Sci, 299 (2006) 76–87. 25. Uhlmann, W.; Grünewald, U.; Gröschke, A.; Lessmann, D.; Hemm, M.; Gockel, G.; Seidl, K. Hydrogeochemische Entwicklung von Tagebauseen während der Flutung. Prognose und Beobachtung im Lausitzer Revier . Aktuelle Reihe, 4 /1 (2000) 78–79. 26. Drab, M.; Greinert, H. The pH changes of the soils formed as a result of reclamation of the sand-pits . Acta Agrophysica, 51 (2001) 37
.: The pH-dependent long-term stability of an amorphous manganese oxide insmelter-polluted soils: implication for chemical stabilization of metals andmetalloids, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 286 (2015) 386-394. 9. El Hadri H., Chéry P., Jalabert S., Lee A., Potin-Gautier M., Lespes G.: Assessment of diffuse contamination of agricultural soil by copper in Aquitaine region by using French national databases, Science of The Total Environment, 441, 15 (2012) 239-247. 10. Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias A.: Trace elements in soil and plants. 3