References  Ducic T, Polle A. Transport and detoxification of manganese and copper in plants. Braz J Plant Physiol. 2005;17:103-112. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-042020050001 00009.  Humphries JM, Stangoulis JCR, Graham RD. Manganese. In: Handbook of Plant Nutrition Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ, editor. Boca Raton FL: Taylor & Francis Group; 2007:351-374.  Millaleo R, Reyes-Díaz M, Ivanov AG, Mora ML, Alberdi M. Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: transport, accumulation and resistance mechanisms. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr. 2010
salinity and oxygen level on lettuce grown in a floating system. Acta Hort. 2003;609:383-387.  Millaleo R, Reyes-Díaz M, Ivanov AG, Mora ML, Alberdi M. Manganese as essential and toxic element for plants: transport, accumulation and resistance mechanisms. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr. 2010;10(4):470-481. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S071895162010000200008.  Kazda M, Znacek L. Aluminum and manganese and their relation to calcium in soil solution and needle in three Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) stands of upper Australia. Plant
Tomasz Kleiber, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Katarzyna Przygocka-Cyna and Tomasz Spiżewski
References  Dietary references intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. Website (December 2017) www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html .  Dobson AW, Erikson KM, Aschner M. Manganese neurotoxicity. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1012:115-128. http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/K_Erikson_ManganeseNeurotoxicity_2004.pdf .  Socha AL, Guerinot ML. Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in
Małgorzata Rajfur, Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak and Andrzej Kłos
Due to their occurrence in very different conditions and high resistance to physical and chemical factors, algae are pioneers colonising new environments and their sorption properties are used in biomonitoring and water remediation. The efficiency of the process of heavy metal sorption in algae used for in situ tests depends on abiotic factors, such as the chemical composition of water. Freshwater algae Spirogyra sp. were used in tests. Algae were exposed in the laboratory in manganese chloride solutions with various contents of other cations, including heavy metals and macronutrients. It has been shown that some heavy metals may desorb manganese bound to the surface of algae as a result of ion exchange in the following sequence: Cd2+ < Mn2+ ≈ Zn2+ < Cu2+. It has been also found that the competitiveness of sorption of cations naturally present in the alga environment versus Mn2+ cations changes in the sequence Na+ < Ca2+ < H+, defined for the concentrations referring to the cation unit charge. The results of tests were compared to the results of dried sea algae Palmaria palmata analyses.
Ameet Kumar, Aamna Balouch, Ashfaque Ahmed Pathan, Abdullah, Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani, Ali Muhammad Mahar, Muneeba Zubair and Benazir Laghari
, and A. J. Nooshabadi, “Ion flotation for removal of Ni (II) and Zn (II) ions from wastewaters,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 143, pp. 131-137, 2015.  M. Barakat, “New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 4, pp. 361-377, 2011.  D. S. Patil, S. M. Chavan, and J. U. K. Oubagaranadin, “A review of technologies for manganese removal from wastewaters,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 468-487, 2016.  M. Mohsen-Nia, P. Montazeri, and H
. Reproducibility of the BCR sequential extraction procedure in a long-term study of the association of heavy metals with soil components in an upland catchment in Scotland. Sci Total Environ. 2005;337:191-205. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.06.010.  Lindsay W, Norvell W. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, copper. Soil Sci Soc Amer J. 1978;42:421-428. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1978.03615995004200030009x.  Alvarez JM, Lopez-Valdivia LM, Novillo J, Obrador A, Rico MI. Comparison of EDTA and sequential extraction tests for
Hanna Huliaieva, Iryna Tokovenko, Victor Maksin, Volodymyr Kaplunenko and Antonina Kalinichenko
The laboratory experiments have been found that soaking seeds Galega orientalis L. (Fodder galega) in nanoaquacitrates solutions of Mn (10 and 20 mg/dm3), Mo (4 mg/dm3) and Mg (2 and 4 mg/dm3), has been lead to germination energy rise, while Mn (10 and 20 mg/dm3) and Mo (4 mg/dm3) concentrations has been influenced germinating ability. At the same time, the soaking seeds in solution of nanoaquacitrates Mn (20 mg/dm3) had the biggest stimulatory effect on the accumulation 7 daily sprouts mass (on 18%). It has been shown that soaking seeds in nanoparticles Mn and Mo solutions leads to the increase of catalase activities (especially under the influence of manganese) and peroxidase activities (under molybdenum influence). Applying the method of chlorophyll a fluorescence in the field and greenhouse experiments with Galega orientalis L. plants, artificial infected with phytoplasma Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum st. 118 the following changes in the photosynthetic apparatus has been indicated: reduction in the length of the light-antenna, blocking transport of electrons in plastoquinone pool PSII with reducing the pool of electron acceptors. It has also been indicated that photochemical activity resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus decreases while its stability increases, as result of described above effects the concentration of chlorophyll a and b in plants leaves decreases. The above-mentioned negative effects have been deactivated through foliar treatment of infected Galega orientalis L. plants with nanoaquacitrates solution Mo (4 mg/dm3) that allow increasing of photochemical resistance of photosynthetic apparatus as well as chlorophyll content in leaves. The foliar treatment with Mn (20 mg/dm3) solution of the infected plants, in compared with infected plants without treatment, resulted in more significant increase of Ki value (which correlate to the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity), which is explaining anti-mycoplasma effect of this solution.
Hüseyin Altundağ, Mustafa Şahin Dündar and Can Serkan Keskin
The availability of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn of dust from vehicle air and pollen filters were investigated by four-step BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. The acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable, residual extracts were measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that both of air and pollen filter dusts contained higher concentration of Fe. To estimate the accuracy of the method the standard reference material BCR 701 was used. The results for recovery all the elements were found in the range 95.4-101.3%. The mean concentrations [μg/g] of trace elements in dusts from air filters/pollen filters were: cadmium 16.72/17.56; cobalt 24.22/23.72; chromium 46.02/55.44; copper 44.92/37.67; iron 1868.03/1854.92; manganese 231.2/213.64; nickel 38.89/45.27; lead 60.99/67.17; zinc 199.58/201.25. The results obtained are in agreement with data reported in the literature.
Paweł Świsłowski and Małgorzata Rajfur
The aim of the research was to assess the level of contamination with heavy metals (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) in two forest areas selected in different places in Poland: the first one in the Swietokrzyskie Province (forests of the Staporkow Forest Division) and the second one in the Opolskie Province (forests of the Kup Forest Division). The degree of contamination of these forest areas with analytes was found using edible large-fruited mushrooms naturally occurring there - the research was carried out using passive biomonitoring method. Heavy metals in mushrooms (separately in stems and hats) as well as in soil samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with excitation in flame (F-AAS). The obtained results were interpreted by assessing the degree of contamination of forest areas on the basis of concentrations of heavy metals in mushrooms. The obtained results indicate an increased accumulation of heavy metals in hats than in mushrooms stems. On the basis of the obtained data, significant contamination of forest areas with selected heavy metals was also found. This is confirmed by the possibility of using mushrooms as biomonitors in passive biomonitoring of forest areas, which are heavy metal accumulators. In the interpretation of the test results, the phytocumuling factor (PF) was also used. The degree of accumulation of heavy metals, from given forest areas - from soil to mushrooms - was assessed on the basis of determined PF coefficients. In addition, good bioavailability of the analysed analytes by mushrooms was found. Additionally, on the basis of the conducted studies, the possibility of mushroom consumption was assessed - they are not suitable for consumption due to the fact that the permissible concentration standards of heavy metals contained in mushrooms were exceeded.
Rafał Kozłowski and Marek Jóźwiak
There is an analysis of the physico-chemical properties and the chemical composition of precipitation in a forest geoecosystem in acid immision conditions. The data used in the analysis was collected between 2000 and 2010. In that period, a drop in the immision scale of S-SO2 in the atmospheric air had been observed, which consequently was one of the reasons for a drop in the precipitation acidity. The conclusion was that rainwater, after penetrating treetops and trunks, undergoes a significant transformation whose intensity depends on species composition of the forest stand. Statistically relevant differences were found in coniferous stands, in which a substantial drop in pH was noted, in addition to an increase in the load of components accumulated in the soil in relation to atmospheric precipitation. The calculated indicators of the eco-chemical state of waters (Ma%) have revealed that throughfall waters in coniferous stands and fir and beech stemflow contain significant amounts of aluminium, manganese, iron and hydrogen ions in the sum of cations. Also the indicator of acid-neutralizing capacity (ANCaq) shows that these waters are more enriched with sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions than bulk precipitation. The recorded variation eventuates from processes related to dry and humid deposition, as well as ion-exchange processes occurring within the stand. The obtained results point to an intensification of chemical denudation within the trunks, triggering disadvantageous changes in both biotic and abiotic part of the ecosystem. The effects of the increased inflow of souring agents to the soil through stemflow are significant acidification of the top mineral soil horizon and an increase in the hydrolytic acidity.