The intellectual leadership of educators or teachers represents a topic of a great interest for educational research and practice. Variety of variables or factors have been examined to find the most complete explanations for teachers’, professors’ and educators’ roles, for example, institutional, financial, gender, organizational, spiritual, and intellectual. No literature was found on the relationship between the demographic variables and researchers’ roles in higher education regarding intellectual leadership. But a lot of studies are focused on the relationship between demographic and other factors in education: job satisfaction, organizational justice, religion, gender, culture, personal and professional roles, stress, mental health, and mobility. The research issue in this study is related to researchers’/scientists’ work in higher education schools and is focused on intellectual leadership, which consists of different roles. It is worth to think about researchers as intellectual leaders and to discover how they recognize or identify their roles in higher education. In this study, findings answer the following research question: “What are the relationships between researchers’ roles and their gender, work experience, dissertation defence date, and research field?” The object of the research study is the researchers’ roles in higher education. The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between demographic factors and researchers’ roles in higher education. Data were collected by performing a questioning survey and using a validated questionnaire with 116 statements in total. The sample consisted of 304 researchers working in higher education institutions. For data analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Mean and ANOVA calculations were used. The research findings reported that the female-researchers’ evaluations were higher in all cases regarding their roles in higher education schools. The results of the study highlighted that the male-researchers were devoted to the roles of academic citizens and mentors, while they did not refer the interest for academic freedom and the role of a knowledge producer. Findings revealed that the role of an academic citizen is perceived equally to other roles, despite the fact that researchers work in different research fields. In this research study, the highest estimates were given to the roles by the researchers representing medical sciences. Results showed that the lowest estimates for the diverse roles in higher education were provided by the researchers from engineering sciences. A correlation analysis between distinguished minor roles descriptions revealed that the participation of scientists in society debates and public policy correlates with all the remaining roles of scientists very weakly or weakly. The strongest correlation with all roles refers to academic duty, critic, personal development, and acting in one research field. In conclusion, intellectual leadership is the scope of challenging processes regarding developing, designing, creating, defining, ensuring, critiquing, teaching, instructing, researching, mentoring, enabling questioning, generating, envisioning, advocating, encouraging, re-imagining, managing, representing, counseling, achieving, evaluating, acting, and providing. The general components here refer to ideas, values, understandings, solutions, beliefs, visions, knowledge, approaches, purposes, and actions. By concluding the study, it is worth to accentuate that the demographic factors that are meaningful in studying the researchers’ roles within the intellectual leadership in higher education are the following - gender and research areas. The work experience in higher education and the year of Ph.D. defence are not the factors, which are meaningfully related to the role performance, academic duty and academic freedom of the researcher as an intellectual leader in higher education.
literature review and classification of cloud computing research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems , 31 (2), 35-60. Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol31/iss1/2 Yielder, J., & Codling, A. (2004). Management and leadership in the contemporary university. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management , 26 (3), 315-328. Zydziunaite, V. (2016). Intellectual leadership of researchers in higher education: Relationship between the demographic factors and roles (Lithuanian Context). Acta Technologica Dubnicae, 6 (3), 11
Jurgita Andruškienė, Šarūnė Barsevičienė, Lijana Dvarionaitė, Jūratė Grubliauskienė and Asta Mažionienė
). Factors related to gender differences in toothbrushing among Lithuanian middle-aged university employees. Medicina , 47(3), 180-186. Saied-Moallemi, Z., Virtanen, J. I., Ghofranipour, F., & Murtomaa, H. (2008). Influence of mothers’ oral health knowledge and attitudes on their children’s dental health. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry , 9(2), 79-83. . Sanders, A. E., & Spencer, A. J. (2005). Childhood circumstances, psychosocial factors and the social impact of adult oral health. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology , 33(5), 370
Andruškienė Jurgita, Barsevičienė Šarūnė, Mažionienė Asta and Virbalienė Akvilė
Dental Education , 69, 687–692. 24. Preišegolavičiūtė, E., Leskauskas, D., & Adomaitienė, V. (2010). Associations of quality of sleep with lifestyle factors and profile of studies among Lithuanian students. Medicina , 46(7), 482–489. 25. Rajab, LD. (2001). Perceived sources of stress among dental students at the University of Jordan. Journal of Dental Education , 65(3), 232–241. 26. Sarokhani, D., Delpisheh, A., Veisani, Y., Sarokhani, M. T., Manesh, R. E., & Sayehmiri, K. (2013). Prevalence of depression among university students: a systematic
The aim of this study is to actualize personal spiritual health as a fundamental component of human wellbeing. In Lithuania research on spiritual health has not been developed yet as a result of political thinking in the post Soviet legacy which sought to eliminate the factor of spirituality from scientific context, and also due to recent socio-economic trends to over-emphasize the material dimension of personal welfare. Christian anthropology, which has laid foundations for Western European humanist heritage, emphasizes the physical and spiritual components of integrity of the human person and declares the importance of personal spiritual harmony for achievement of fullness of life. While employing analysis of scientific literature and Church documents, this study sought to highlight the basic criteria of personal spiritual health and scientific empirical approaches to establish the importance of spiritual health in the context of comprehensive human wellbeing. The study reveals that an essential component of the concept of spiritual health is relationship. Spiritual health is an important component of human wellbeing enabling the person to cope with personal existential crises in various aspects of human life: stressful situations, illness or presence of death. Research confirms that spiritual health correlates with and is an important positive factor in the overall process of human healing. It may be assumed that actualization and improvement of spiritual health can significantly contribute to the processes of coping with social pathologies present in the modern society.
The integrated approach to the development of educational theory of later life learning should be informed by comprehensive knowledge of ageing as a social construct. Establishment of the role of later life learning in the context of successful ageing paradigm encompasses both sociological and educational perspectives taking into consideration the complexity of older people’s engagement in society and participation in education with regard to social use for the learning outcomes and personal growth. In the context of successful ageing, it should provide the answers to the questions related to the meaning and role of learning in later life. The present research aims to explore the role of learning in the construct of successful ageing and to analyze the characteristic features of non-formal later life learning in Lithuania in the perspective of successful ageing based on the review some recent literature on psychological and social aspects of successful ageing and older adult education and research in the fields of educational and psychosocial gerontology. It pursues answers to the questions as to “How can learning in later life contribute to successful ageing? What are the implications for the role of learning in the models of successful ageing? How is the role of third-age learning conceptualized in the perspective of successful ageing?” The answers to these questions provide better insight into the conceptual background of older adult education and suggests prospective research on the issue of the role of learning in older age. The multidimensional nature of the concept of successful ageing revealed by the literature review suggests that the role of learning in the construct of successful ageing is analyzable in relationship with health, psychological and social domains. The role of learning in later life is manifested through its impact on maintenance of cognitive function, psychological resources and social functioning. The positive impact of learning in later life on mental health through maintenance of cognitive function and the utilization of psychological resources through stimulation of personal growth and self-efficacy of older adult learners has been supported by findings of many recent studies. Education has been identified as one of the predictors of active engagement with life as an essential component of successful ageing.