Liudmila Dulksnienė, Sigutė Stankevičienė, Irmantas Ramanauskas and Laima Šarkauskienė
The changing approach to a physician’s profession brings about changes in the professional education and training of family physicians as well as in their continuous qualification improvement. For this reason, during the reformation of Lithuania’s primary healthcare system, not only alterations in family physicians’ activity, but also the changes in their education and training and the updating and improvement of their curriculum were seen as priority areas.
The aim of the study was to reveal and compare resident physicians’ attitude to the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians based on the traditional and problem-based learning systems at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (subsequently, LSMU).
The study on the professional education and training of family physicians was conducted in 2005 and in 2015. The quantitative study was carried out via a written questionnaire survey. The studied population consisted of resident physicians who were studying family medicine at the LSMU.
The analysis of the peculiarities of the professional education and training of family physicians showed that resident physicians acquired sufficient knowledge and skills in the fields of disease diagnostics and treatment, qualification improvement, disease prevention, and teamwork organization. Resident physicians had insufficient skills to adapt to new conditions of activity, and their studies did not develop creative thinking. The problem-based learning (PBL) system helps future family physicians to develop essential competences and to acquire knowledge and skills required for the career of a family physician.
The shortage of welding specialists is a long-term problem in the labour market of Lithuania. Ststistical data show the lack of thousands specialists in this field with increasing gap between their supply and demand. It creates concern, because the shortage of skilled welders forces enterprises to refuse many profitable orders. In this article is presented the analysis of the reasons regarding the shortage of welding specialists in the labour market of Lithuania; also here are disclosed the gaps in the identification of the demand of welders and justifying the importance of this identification of demand for effective functioning of labour market. Referring to the results of research there can be stated, that the goal to satisfy the real needs of economy in welding specialists can be achieved by identifying the demand in terms of concrete qualifications of these specialists and in terms of numbers of required specialists. Absence of exact data in these fields creates the situation of uncertainty which does not permit smooth functioning of vocational guidance and vocational education and training of these specialists. As a consequence, it is not possible to ensure adequate reaction of the VET system to the demands of labour market. There are suggested instruments helping to identify the levels of qualifications and competences of welding specialists, to classify them into specialities and specialisations and to define the limits of their qualifications. There is also provided the model for identification of the demand of welding specialists in the national labour market. These measures create favourable preconditions for adequate reaction to the existing shortages of welding specialists and for the satisfaction of corresponding needs in the sectors of economy.
Liudmila Dulksnienė, Irmantas Ramanauskas, Sigutė Stankevičienė and Rima-Jūratė Gerbutavičienė
The increasing significance of science and more intensive cooperation with foreign partners create favorable preconditions for the education and training of good specialists. In view of the renewal of specialty knowledge and the possibility to read the most recent scientific literature in a foreign language and to participate in international conferences with foreign partners, it has become relevant to educate specialists capable of cooperating in scientific and subject-oriented activity when freely communicating in several foreign languages. However, currently, many higher education institutions in Lithuania are reducing the number of hours in the professional foreign language modules. Still, despite the continuous reduction of the hours allocated for foreign language learning, the requirements for the quality of knowledge are actually increasing. For this reason, the teacher faces a problem of how to help a student internalize the required professional knowledge within a short period of time. The aim of the study was to reveal the peculiarities of the expression of integrated practical classes in professional language studies at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (LSMU). In search of new possibilities for professional language learning, integrated professional language classes were used for students learning medicine in Lithuanian and a foreign language. During these classes, medical issues were analyzed. The study on the learning process in the integrated professional language classes at the LSMU was carried out in 2014. Data for this quantitative study were collected by using a written survey. The studied population consisted of 2nd- and 3rd-year students of the LSMU Faculty of Medicine. The results of the study conducted at the LSMU when teaching the Professional Language module showed that integrated practical classes of professional language positively influenced the students’ learning and facilitated students’ empowerment for successful professional language studies. The students positively evaluated the contents of the integrated classes, the methods used, and the teachers’ competence. The students’ opinion about the application of the elements of PBL during integrated professional language classes was also favorable. The students were willing to try something new and to learn languages by drawing schemes and maps, discussing medical issues, analyzing problems, and searching for answers to the arising questions.
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The main goal of this article is to explore the contents of the concept of enactment of the VET curriculum in the work process and to disclose the current methodological and methodical approaches of it’s implementation in practice. The article starts with the discussing the theoretical aspects of the enactment of the VET curricula referring to the insights of psychology, sociology of education and work, as well as vocational didactics research. It is followed by the case study of the enactment of VET curriculum in the education and work processes in one initial VET centre of Lithuania aimed to disclose applied methodological approaches and their implications for the professional and personal development of students. Research provides evidence that effective and sustainable enactment of the initial VET curricula requires to apply the integrated and holistic approach to competence development and implementation of VET curriculum.
Despite the abundance of career education interventions and information on career opportunities, the search for information process is not necessarily performed very thoroughly, and thus persons, choosing a profession, do it in the simplest way, being unable to properly explain their decisions afterwards. In choosing a career, it is crucial to think through potential alternatives and support them by arguments. That is why it is important to discuss the process of reasoning, which evolves coherently and can be characterised by certain elements. The following research question was raised in this study: “How the reasoning of pupils’ on career choice is distinguished at a comprehensive school?” In this case the main accent of the research is focused on the situation of career choice reasoning at Lithuanian gymnasiums. The research aim was to disclose the phenomenon of the reasoning on pupils’ career choice at a comprehensive school. For this article, the data have been collected by methods of literature review and individual semi-structured interviewing. Qualitative content analysis has been performed while processing the information acquired from semi-structured interviews. Findings from literature review showed that the reasoning is assessed as conscious, aim-oriented process of conclusion drawing, by means of which it is pursued to evaluate alternatives, solve problems and make decisions by referring to certain information, facts and features, personal characteristics and beliefs. Reasoning based on stimuli emergence is the aim-oriented process, functions of which are based on information, knowledge and experience. This needs mental abilities, language. Reasoning is related to personal inclination and habits. Empirical findings revealed that the phenomenon of career choice at school is not unanimously understood and does not have clear structure. The character of pupils’ reasoning is closely related to emergence of certain stimuli. The external stimuli that induce the reasoning on one’s career choice, which were mostly emphasized by the informants, allow considering that here the school educational environment plays the important role.
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