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Agata Włodarska-Frykowska

References Antrop, M., Why landscapes of the past are important for the future. “Landscape and Urban Planning”, 1-2, 2005, pp. 21-34. Castles, S. and de Haas. H, and Miller. M. J, Age of Migration. Palgrave, New York 2013. Castles, S., International Migration at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century: Global Trends and Issues, “International Social Science Journal”, 165, 2010, pp. 269-281. Kowalenko, J., and Mensah. P, and Leončikas. T, New Immigrations In Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Legal

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Jurgita Andruškienė, Šarūnė Barsevičienė, Lijana Dvarionaitė, Jūratė Grubliauskienė and Asta Mažionienė

). Factors related to gender differences in toothbrushing among Lithuanian middle-aged university employees. Medicina , 47(3), 180-186. Saied-Moallemi, Z., Virtanen, J. I., Ghofranipour, F., & Murtomaa, H. (2008). Influence of mothers’ oral health knowledge and attitudes on their children’s dental health. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry , 9(2), 79-83. . Sanders, A. E., & Spencer, A. J. (2005). Childhood circumstances, psychosocial factors and the social impact of adult oral health. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology , 33(5), 370

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Andruškienė Jurgita, Barsevičienė Šarūnė, Mažionienė Asta and Virbalienė Akvilė

Dental Education , 69, 687–692. 24. Preišegolavičiūtė, E., Leskauskas, D., & Adomaitienė, V. (2010). Associations of quality of sleep with lifestyle factors and profile of studies among Lithuanian students. Medicina , 46(7), 482–489. 25. Rajab, LD. (2001). Perceived sources of stress among dental students at the University of Jordan. Journal of Dental Education , 65(3), 232–241. 26. Sarokhani, D., Delpisheh, A., Veisani, Y., Sarokhani, M. T., Manesh, R. E., & Sayehmiri, K. (2013). Prevalence of depression among university students: a systematic

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Vaineta Juškienė

Abstract

The aim of this study is to actualize personal spiritual health as a fundamental component of human wellbeing. In Lithuania research on spiritual health has not been developed yet as a result of political thinking in the post Soviet legacy which sought to eliminate the factor of spirituality from scientific context, and also due to recent socio-economic trends to over-emphasize the material dimension of personal welfare. Christian anthropology, which has laid foundations for Western European humanist heritage, emphasizes the physical and spiritual components of integrity of the human person and declares the importance of personal spiritual harmony for achievement of fullness of life. While employing analysis of scientific literature and Church documents, this study sought to highlight the basic criteria of personal spiritual health and scientific empirical approaches to establish the importance of spiritual health in the context of comprehensive human wellbeing. The study reveals that an essential component of the concept of spiritual health is relationship. Spiritual health is an important component of human wellbeing enabling the person to cope with personal existential crises in various aspects of human life: stressful situations, illness or presence of death. Research confirms that spiritual health correlates with and is an important positive factor in the overall process of human healing. It may be assumed that actualization and improvement of spiritual health can significantly contribute to the processes of coping with social pathologies present in the modern society.

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Salomėja Šatienė

Abstract

The integrated approach to the development of educational theory of later life learning should be informed by comprehensive knowledge of ageing as a social construct. Establishment of the role of later life learning in the context of successful ageing paradigm encompasses both sociological and educational perspectives taking into consideration the complexity of older people’s engagement in society and participation in education with regard to social use for the learning outcomes and personal growth. In the context of successful ageing, it should provide the answers to the questions related to the meaning and role of learning in later life. The present research aims to explore the role of learning in the construct of successful ageing and to analyze the characteristic features of non-formal later life learning in Lithuania in the perspective of successful ageing based on the review some recent literature on psychological and social aspects of successful ageing and older adult education and research in the fields of educational and psychosocial gerontology. It pursues answers to the questions as to “How can learning in later life contribute to successful ageing? What are the implications for the role of learning in the models of successful ageing? How is the role of third-age learning conceptualized in the perspective of successful ageing?” The answers to these questions provide better insight into the conceptual background of older adult education and suggests prospective research on the issue of the role of learning in older age. The multidimensional nature of the concept of successful ageing revealed by the literature review suggests that the role of learning in the construct of successful ageing is analyzable in relationship with health, psychological and social domains. The role of learning in later life is manifested through its impact on maintenance of cognitive function, psychological resources and social functioning. The positive impact of learning in later life on mental health through maintenance of cognitive function and the utilization of psychological resources through stimulation of personal growth and self-efficacy of older adult learners has been supported by findings of many recent studies. Education has been identified as one of the predictors of active engagement with life as an essential component of successful ageing.