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Liudas Mažylis, Ingrida Unikaitė-Jakuntavičienė and Romualdas Povilaitis

and Littlefield, 2009. Electoral Committee of the Republic of Lithuania, ELTA ir inf. (papildyta premjero komentaru). Referendumas įkvėpė drąsos VAE priešininkams. Energetika, 2012-10-24, 13:28. ELTA ir inf. Paskelbtas galutinis „Drąsos kelio“ kandidatų į Seimo narius sąrašas. Aktualijos, 2012-08-16, 09:41. Girnius K. Kas laimės Seimo rinkimus? 2016-02-16, Hendricks, Allen John and Robert E. Denton (edt.) Comunicator in Chief: How Barack

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Kristín Loftsdóttir

.1215/08992363-12-2-291. Daukšas, D 2013, ‘Lithuanians in Norway: between ‘here’ and ‘there’’, Urbanities, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 51-68. Dzenovska, D 2010, ‘Public reason and the limits of liberal antiracism in Latvia’, Ethnos, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 496-525, DOI: Dzenovska, D 2013, ‘Historical agency and the coloniality of power in postsocialist Europe’, Anthropological Theory, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 394-416, DOI: 10.1177/1463499613502185. ECRI-The European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance, 2007

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Anastazija Markevičiūtė and Vytautas Kuokštis

-O., Sprūds, A. Baltic-German Strategic Engagement: Realignment after the Eurocrisis?. Latvian Institute of International Affairs, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Retrieved from BNS, 2012, January 2. D.Grybauskaitė: Lietuvai nerealu 2014 metais įsivesti eurą [D.Grybauskaitė: euro adoption in 2014 is unrealistic for Lithuania]. Retrieved from Caporale, G.M., Ciferri, A., Girardi

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Áine Macken-Walsh

Department for International Development, UK. DfID/RPP 2003, November. Performing Partnerships, Baltic States Rural Partnerships Programme for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods, Enterplan/UK Department for International Development. Edwards, B., Dillard, M., Juska, A. and Abromaviciute, J. 2005 The Rural Community Movement in Lithuania: Gender-based differences in Leadership and the Issues, Activities, and Impacts of Local NGOs, Paper prepared for presentation at the European Consortium for Political Research Conference

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Algirdas Stanaitis

References Demographic Yearbook (Demografijos metraštis), 2007: Vilnius: Statistikos departamentas prie LRV. Demographic Yearbook (Demografijos metraštis), 2008: Vilnius: Statistikos departamentas prie LRV. Department of Statistics of the Republic of Lithuania, database site: Department of Statistics of the Republic of Lithuania, news pages: Gollangs, S. 2009: Bebi

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Klaudijus Maniokas, Darius Žeruolis and Sabina Karmazinaitė

References Baltijos tyrimai, 2014. Požiūris į demokratiją: dvi Lietuvos [View to Democracy: Two Lithuanias]. [online] Delfi, 20 August. Available at: <> [Accessed November 2014]. Bohle, D. and Greskovits, B., 2012. Capitalist Diversity on Europe’s Periphery. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Börzel, T., 2012. From Europeanisation to Diffusion. West European Politics, 35(1), pp.79-97. Börzel, T. and

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Dovilė Jakniūnaitė

References Agreement of Political Parties regarding the Main Goals and Objectives of the State Foreign Policy 2004-2008 , 2004, Vilnius, 5 October. Available at: <> [Accessed 1 October 2015]. Agreement of Political Parties regarding the Principles, Strategic Guidelines and Goals of Lithuanian Foreign Policy 2008-2012 [in Lithuanian], 2008, Vilnius, 28 October. Available at: <> [Accessed 11 October 2014

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Marcin Jędrysiak

://, [Accessed on: 4 August 2017]. ENRI-EAST [2013] Research Report #8 Th e Polish Minority in Lithuania [online] Available at: [Accessed on: 13 January 2018] European Comission [2007], Th ird report on Latvia Adopted on 29 June 2007, [Accessed on: 20 December 2017]. Górecki D. [2009] Sytuacja ludności polskiej na Wschodzie w świetle

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Stasys Vaitekūnas

References Bubnys, A. 1998: Vokiečių okupuota Lietuva. Vilnius. Demographic Yearbook, 2007, Vilnius: Statistics Lithuania. Demographic Yearbook 2005, Vilnius: Statistics Lithuania. Demographic Yearbook 2008, Vilnius: Statistics Lithuania. Eberhardt P. (1997). Przemiany narodnościowe na Litwie, Przegląd Wschodni , Warszawa: Eurostat's database (18 June 2008). Gaučas, P. 1978: Gyventojų skaičius

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Aiste Lengvenyte, Robertas Strumila and Jurgita Grikiniene


AIMS – The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania, determine the reasons for usage and evaluate the contributing factors such as socio-demographic characteristics, stress levels, sleep quality and knowing somebody who has used a neuro-enhancing drug.

DESIGN – A cross-sectional survey study was performed by analysing a convenience sample of n=579 in the two universities offering medical education in Lithuania, Vilnius University and the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. In 2014, students were asked to fill in anonymous paper questionnaires consisting of 13 items on prevalence of substance use to enhance cognitive performance, and on reasons and correlates (response rate 95%) during lecture time.

RESULTS – Of the respondents, 8.1% indicated that they had used cognitive enhancers. Among those who had used these drugs, nootropics were the most frequently mentioned (59.6%), while psychostimulants, such as modafinil, methylphenidate and amphetamine-derived drugs were mentioned less frequently (38.3%). Other substances were indicated by 23.4% of the respondents. Improvement of concentration and increased studying time were predominant purposes (55.3% and 48.9% of users, respectively). Male students reported three times higher prevalence rates than females (14.6% vs. 5.1%, p<0.05). Prevalence was also higher in students who knew someone using these substances than among those who did not know such persons (17.3% vs. 5.1%, p< 0.05). This was the most associated factor with cognitive-enhancing drug-taking behaviour. No correlation between cognitive enhancement usage and sleep quality or stress levels was found, nor between usage and belonging to a student organisation or having a job.

CONCLUSIONS – In Lithuania, 1 of 12 medical students admits to having used neuro-enhancing drugs. Our study results provide an overview of the actual situation on correlates and reasons for taking performance-enhancing substances.