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V. Bobinaite and I. Konstantinaviciute

REFERENCES 1. Laboratory of Energy Systems Research at Lithuanian Energy Institute. (2015). Draft of Lithuanian National Energy Strategy . [Online]. Available at http://www.lei.lt/_img/_up/File/atvir/2016/NES/NES_projektas_(Versija_viesoms_diskusijoms)-2015.12.16.pdf . 2. Norvaiša, E., & Galinis, A. (2016). Future of Lithuanian energy system: Electricity import or local generation? Energy Strategy Reviews , 10 , 29–39. 3. European Commission. (2011). Energy roadmap 2050 . [Online]. Available at http

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Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences

The Journal of Institute of Physical Energetics

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V. Bobinaite and I. Priedite

_res_report.pdf . 3. National Renewable Energy Action Plan of Lithuania. [Online]. Available: // http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans . 4. National Renewable Energy Action Plan of Estonia. [Online]. Available: // http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans . 5. National Renewable Energy Action Plan of Latvia. [Online]. Available: // http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/national-action-plans . 6. Parliament of Lithuania (2012). Lithuanian National Energy Independence Strategy

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V. Bobinaite and I. Priedite

. The role of renewable energies and regulatory electric market reforms.Energy, 48, 307-313. 4. Mulder, M., & Scholtens, B. (2013). The impact of renewable energy on electricity prices in the Netherlands. Renewable Energy, 57, 94-100. 5. Grigas, A. (2013). Energy policy: the Achilles heel of the Baltic States. [Online]. Available: http://www.notre-europe.eu/media/balticstateseu-energypolicy-grigas-ne-jdi-july13.pdf?pdf=ok. 6. Lithuanian Energy Market (2011). [Online]. Available: // http

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L. Zemite, A. Kutjuns, I. Bode, M. Kunickis and N. Zeltins

Abstract

The Latvian natural gas system is interconnected with transmission networks located in Lithuania, Estonia and Russia. Natural gas commercial metering is provided by GMS “Karksi” (Estonia) and by GMS “Kiemenai” (Lithuania). Natural gas is supplied to all larger urban areas in Latvia. Natural gas is supplied to Latvia along the Latvian–Russian pipeline only during the warm period of the year (April–September), and it is accumulated in the underground gas storage facility in Incukalns. During winter, gas from the underground facility is delivered to Latvian customers, as well as transmitted to Estonia and back to Russia. There is also a connection to Lithuania. Out of the gas supply disruption risks that are assessed at different levels, the essential one with a trans-border impact potential consists in the insufficient technical capacity of Incukalns UGS. Given the current technical possibilities, IUGS cannot pass the gas volume required for the Baltic States to compensate the gas supply deficit. The paper performs system recovery analysis after selected critical events. The paper provides a report describing the steps to be followed in order to restore the gas transmission system to normal operation after selected critical events. A very significant region of the power system of Latvia is the central part of Latvia and Riga region, where both of Riga CHPs, as well as Riga HPP, is located. The restoration time of the gas system of Latvia depends on the gravity of the situation and damage in the gas system and may range from several hours to several days.

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M. Balodis, V. Gavars and J. Andersons

References 1. State Energy Programme 1992 of the Latvian Republic. Manager: Z. Blumbergs, Publisher TILTS (in Latvian). 2. Jorgen Fenhann. (Aug. 1992). Energy Conservation Potentials in Lithuania and Latvia. Riso National Laboratory (Denmark), Roskilde Riso-M-2941(EN). 3. Statistics and prospects for the European electricity sector (2008). EURPROG, 36th ed-n. 4. Statistical Yearbooks of Latvia, Central Statistical Bureau, 1991 - 2011. 5. EURELECTRIC Power Statistics & Trends, full

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V. Bobrovs, A. Udalcovs, S. Spolitis and G. Ivanovs

References Peucheret, C. (2004). Fibre and component induced limitations in high capacity optical networks. Doctoral thesis. 1-8. Udalcovs, A., Bobrovs, V., & Ivanovs, G. (2011). Investigation of allowed channel spacing for differently modulated optical signals in combined HDWDM systems. Lithuanian Journal of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 5 (111). Udalcovs, A. (2011). Investigation of combined transmission in WDM systems. Master's thesis. 135

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O. Kochukov, K. Briņķis and A. Mutule

Abstract

The paper describes the algorithm for distributed state estimation (SE) and is focused on its testing and validation. For this purpose, different events in the modeled power system of the 330-750 kV electrical ring Latvia - Lithuania - Belarus - Smolensk - Moscow - St. Petersburg - Estonia - Latvia were considered. The methods for testing the Inter-TSO SE prototype and dynamic network monitoring & modeling are based on comparison of the available SCADA data about real events with those of SE calculation. In total, four operational states were studied, including initial, accident and two post-accident operational states

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O. Ozolins, V. Bobrovs and G. Ivanovs

-Pass Filters Influence on NRZ Signal in HDWDM Systems. Lithuanian Journal of Electronics and Electrical Engineering.   4(100) 65-68. Cisco Systems (2008). Cisco Visual Networking Index - Forecast and Methodology 2007-2012. White paper , (1), 1-15. Voges, E., & Peteramann, K. (2002) Optische Kommunikationstechnik - Handbuch für Wissenschaft un Industrie. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1072. Lyubomirsky, I. (2007). Advanced modulation Formats for Ultra-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. White

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J. Survilo

-Pass Filters Influence on NRZ Signal in HDWDM Systems. Lithuanian Journal of Electronics and Electrical Engineering.   4(100) 65-68. Cisco Systems (2008). Cisco Visual Networking Index - Forecast and Methodology 2007-2012. White paper , (1), 1-15. Voges, E., & Peteramann, K. (2002) Optische Kommunikationstechnik - Handbuch für Wissenschaft un Industrie. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1072. Lyubomirsky, I. (2007). Advanced modulation Formats for Ultra-Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. White