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D. Zienius, R. Lelešius, H. Kavaliauskis, A. Stankevičius and A. Šalomskas

and taxonomy of Parvoviridae. Intervirology 23: 61-73. Spibey N, Greenwood NM, Sutton D, Chalmers WS, Tarpey I (2008) Canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus. Vet Microbiol 128: 48-55. Stankevicius A, Salomskas A (1998) Epizootic pecularities of parvovirus infection in Lithuanian dog population. Vet zootech-lith 5: 89-94. Sutton D, Vinberg C, Gustafsson A, Pearce J, Greenwood N (2013) Canine parvovirus type 2c identified from an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis in a

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M. Ruzauskas, N. Couto, A. Pavilonis, I. Klimiene, R. Siugzdiniene, M. Virgailis, L. Vaskeviciute, L. Anskiene and C. Pomba

swine-associated methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Lithuania. Pol J Vet Sci 16: 125-127. Sasaki T, Tsubakishita S, Tanaka Y, Sakusabe A, Ohtsuka M, Hirotaki S, Kawakami T, Fukata T, Hiramatsu K (2010) Multiplex-PCR method for species identification of coagulase-positive staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 66: 765-769. Schnellmann C, Gerber V, Rossano A, Jaquier V, Panchaud Y, Doherr MG, Thomann A, Straub R, Perreten V (2006) Presence of new mecA and mph(C) variants conferring antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus spp

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Arunas Stankevičius, Jurate Buitkuviene, Jurgita Deltuvytiene, Ramune Čepuliene, Virginija Zilionyte, Ina Pampariene and Judita Žymantiene

). Act Vet Hung 2013, 61, 529-536. 11. ISO Committee on conformity assessment (CASCO). General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO/IEC 17025). 2005, 1-66. 12. Janutenaite J., Scerbavicius R., Blazevicius E.: Current status of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Lithuania, sero-epidemiological study by ELISA. Proc 5 th Inter Cong Vet Virol 2000, 244-245. 13. Kaden V., Lagen E., Hanel A., Hlinak A., Mewes L., Hergarten G., Irsch B., Deken J., Bruer.: Retrospective serological survey on selected viral pathogens

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Viktorija Lėgaudaitė-Lydekaitienė, Loreta Šernienė, Vaida Vismantaitė, Mindaugas Malakauskas and Eglė Kudirkienė

M., Lyhs U. (2008). PCRassay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products. Food Microbiol., 25: 908-914. Kudirkienė E., Malakauskas M., Malakauskas A., Bojesen A.M., Olsen J.E. (2010). Demonstration of persistent strains of Campylobacter jejuni within broiler farms over a 1-year period in Lithuania. J. Appl. Microbiol., 108: 868-877. Lawes J.R., Vidal A., Clifton- Hadley F.A., Sayers R., Rodgers J., Snow L., Evans S.J., Powell L.F. (2012). Investigation of prevalence and risk factors for

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M. Ruzauskas, N. Couto, A. Belas, I. Klimiene, R. Siugzdiniene and C. Pomba


During 2011, 160 nasal samples were taken from pigs on 8 different farms in Lithuania. Four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were obtained. The isolates were ST398, spa type t011 and SCCmec V and none carried the lukF/lukS genes. Strains were resistant to tetracycline, attributed to tetK and tetM genes, and to erythromycin owing to the ermB gene. One MRSA strain was resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and carried the dfrK gene. This is the first report on the presence and characteristics of livestock-associated MRSA isolated from pigs in Lithuania.

Open access

I. Klimienė, M. Ružauskas, V. Špakauskas, A. Matusevičius, R. Mockeliūnas, A. Pereckienė, Č. Butrimaitė-Ambrozevičienė and M. Virgailis

Antimicrobial resistance patterns to beta-lactams of gram-positive cocci isolated from bovine mastitis in Lithuania

The aim of the study was to isolate gram-positive cocci from cows with mastitis and to determine their resistance to beta-lactamic antibiotics. Eight hundred and nine strains were isolated and identified as staphylococci (n=516), streptococci (n=199) and enterococci (n=94) from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis in Lithuania. The most common causative agents of udder disease included: S. epidermidis (n=176), S. aureus (n=176), S. agalactiae (n=134), S. hyicus (136) and E. hirae (n=68). Isolates were analysed for antimicrobial resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, cephalexin, amoxicillin + clavulanate. The susceptibility patterns were analysed using the agar disk diffusion method. S. aureus showed the highest level of resistance to amoxicillin (81.3%), penicillin (76.7%) and ampicillin (78.4%). The corresponding values for CNS strains were 59.7%, 59.7% and 50.6% against penicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin respectively. Streptococci were the most frequently resistant to amoxicillin (29.3%), and enterococci to penicillin (27%), amoxicillin (27.5%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (23.8%). The resistance of all tested mastitis pathogens to aminopenicillins and penicillin highly correlated (r=0.83). Compared with other antibiotics, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination tended to be more effective (p<0.05) against all tested bacteria in vitro. However, S. aureus, in 38.1% of cases, was resistant to this combination of antimicrobials.

This study demonstrates that S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. agalactiae and E. hirae remain the most frequent mastitis causative agents on Lithuanian cattle farms. The highest resistance in vitro to penicillins was demonstrated by S. aureus, S. hyicus and S. intermedius. Resistance to cephalosporins remains low, irrespective of bacterial species of gram-positive cocci.

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Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The Journal of Committee of Veterinary Sciences of Polish Academy of Sciences and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

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Władysław Danielewicz, Piotr Kiciński and Blanka Wiatrowska

., Rejmánek M., Barbour M.G., Panetta F.D., West C.J. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distribution , 6, 93−107. Sokołowski A., Paluch R. 2003. Expansion of oak in pine stands (in Polish). Las Polski , 2, 22−23. Straigyté L., Žalkauskas R. 2012. Effect of climate variability on Quercus rubra phenotype and spread in Lithuanian forests. Dendrobiology , 67, 79−85. Sukopp H. 1962. Neophytes in natural plant communities in Central Europe (in German). Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft

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Aris Jansons, Roberts Matisons, Agris Pobiarzens, Linards Sisenis and Una Neimane

characteristics of lodgepole pine: biogeographical and management implications. In: Lodgepole pine, the species and its management (ed.: D.M. Baumgartner et al.). Washington State University, Pullman, 1–13. Whiteman A., Brown C. 1999. The potential role of forest plantations in meeting future demands for industrial wood products. International Forestry Review , 1, 143–152. Žiogas A., Juronis V., Sneškiene V., Gabrilavičius R. 2006. Pathological condition of introduced conifers in the forests of South-Western and Western Lithuania. Baltic Forestry , 12, 234–242.

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Gianluca Grilli, Giulia Garegnani, Aleš Poljanec, Andrej Ficko, Daniele Vettorato, Isabella De Meo and Alessandro Paletto

planning in local communities: experience of Lithuania. Ukio Technologinis ir Ekonominis Vystymas , 14 (2), 107–117. Craig G. 2007. Community capacity-building: something old, something new? Critical Social Policy , 27, 335–359. Driscoll C., Starik M. 2004. The primordial stake-holder: advancing the conceptual consideration of stakeholder status for the natural environment. Journal of Business Ethics , 49, 55–73. Dwivedi P., Alavalapati J.R.R. 2009. Stakeholders’ perceptions on forest biomass-based bioenergy development in the southern US. Energy