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CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning), as an approach to bilingual education in which both content and a foreign language are taught together, started to be employed in secondary schools of Lithuania more than a decade ago; however, there still exists a diversity of opinions towards its benefits and flaws. The studies on CLIL in the European countries have shown that the success of CLIL very much depends on the existing policy documents on the national level regulating CLIL implementation and providing guidance to schools and teachers. It also depends on the amount of research conducted on CLIL in a particular country. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyse the current state of affairs of CLIL in Lithuania in terms of the existing policy documents, implemented projects and conducted research that would serve as a theoretical background highlighting the necessity for further analytical investigation. The results of the analysis have shown that no coherent national policies in terms of teaching CLIL have been developed or legal government regulations have been issued in Lithuania until today. The present study has revealed that systematic approach towards investigation of CLIL in Lithuania has not yet been adopted which resulted in the lack of comprehensive analyses on an overall situation of CLIL in Lithuania as well as on factors ensuring efficiency of CLIL implementation in particular. The findings of the study point towards the need for such analyses in the future.
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This research intends to find out whether Lithuanians studying English as a foreign language make certain mistakes because of the influence of their native language. It focuses on negative transfer in writing in English and is qualitative rather than quantitative. The article discusses the errors and illustrates them with examples that come from a corpus for which the data was obtained from 34 Moodle forum posts written by English B2 students, native speakers of Lithuanian who were in year one or year two of their studies in various study programmes but also studied English at Vytautas Magnus University as an obligatory subject. The students participated in this forum in October 2018 and reflected on the week of presentations they had recently had: they were asked to write what they liked or did not like in the presentations their colleagues had given in class, what went well and what did not, what they should improve in the future, etc. This study identified the types of errors (based on Camilleri, 2004) that occurred most frequently and their source (based on Camilleri, 2004; Brogan & Son, 2015). Most frequently the students made errors in the cases where there was a specific grammatical category in English, but it was non-existent in Lithuanian, while sometimes the source of errors was literal translation from the native language. The error analysis shows that in the English classroom specific attention should be given to the verb forms “is” and “are”, “was” and “were”, “has” and “have”, articles, collocations, tense agreement, quantifiers, the sentence structure of the English language and the importance of word meanings.
Translations serve as a right to the international existence as they allow the national literature to reach wider audiences. Moreover, they allow readers to get acquainted with literature of other cultures. For these reasons, translators have an important role in the literary world. Translators’ prefaces are the main link between readers and translators. However, there is a lack of analysis of this specific genre. This research aims at analysing translator’s preface as a genre and examining differences and similarities of genre features in Lithuanian and English prefaces. 30 Lithuanian and 30 English translators’ prefaces are analysed according to genre elements, such as the format, genre moves and functions. The analysis covers a wide range of examples of both Lithuanian and English fiction books. For this reason, the analysed translators’ prefaces are published in different years, are translated by different translators and are published by different publishing houses. It may be noted, that the analysis reveals that Lithuanian translators tend to be more invisible in their prefaces than English translators. They focus on the author and provide little of their own evaluation and explicit explanations on translation issues. However, English translators focus on the translation process and the subjective analysis. The analysis also demonstrates that the basic format of prefaces is beginning with a title and ending with a signature.