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Securitization and Lithuania’s National Security Change

Abstract

The paper addresses the security threat perception and securitization of existential threats in Lithuania. It focuses upon the securitization theory and its ability to explain the change of national security agendas as affected by the changes in national identity and existential security threats. It takes into account the internal and external factors that are shaping the objective and subjective national threat perception. The paper applies O. Waever’s securitization theory with an aim to explain how the national security threats are being addressed and perceived in Lithuania. Moreover, the paper is developed against the backdrop of the most recent developments in securitization theory and evolution of its theoretical perceptions of identity, existential threats, and legitimacy. It also discusses the possibility of inclusion of hybrid security threats into an analysis of securitization. The empirical part of the article assesses the most recent security challenges, provides evaluation of changes in national security perception, and portrays the dynamics of national security threats as defined in the National Security Strategies and the Military Doctrine. The paper focuses upon the most recent dynamics in security policy of Lithuania. It also takes into account the hybrid nature of security threats and the reaction to hybrid security elements such as: cyber security, information security, and international terrorism.

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Lithuania’s Foreign Policy Under the Eastern Partnership Programme in 2009–2014: From Small State Policy Tto Smart State Strategy

Abstract

The article addresses Lithuania’s foreign policy vis-à-vis the Eastern Partnership programme in 2009-2014 from the perspective of small states’ abilities to influence decision making processes within the European Union. The author aims at revealing the puzzle of Lithuania’s marginal capacities of absolute power being disproportional to the output of its foreign policy towards implementation of the Eastern Partnership programme and hence utilising “smart state strategy” conceptualised by Anders Wivel. The novelty of the study rests on expansion of applying the smart state strategy towards the post-negotiation stage of the policy implementation. The article contributes to the debate over the applicability of the “smart state strategy” approach towards the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union, by arguing that Lithuania’s foreign policy vis-à-vis the Eastern Partnership programme in 2009-2014 does indeed serve as an example of such behaviour, however recognising Lithuania’s initial shift from utilising “small state policy” to “smart state strategy”.

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Ascomycete species new to Lithuania

Lithuania. - Acta Mycologica, 30(1): 95-119. Dennis R. W . G ., 1968: British ascomycetes. - Lehre. Ellis M. B ., E llis J . P., 1997: Microfungi on land plants. An identification handbook. - London. Farr D . F ., Rossman A . Y ., 2006: Fungal Databases, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. URL - http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/ [accessed 01-03-2012]. Index Fungorum, 2008: The CABI Bioscience Database of Fungal Names. URL - http://www.indexfungorum.org/ [accessed 01

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Race to the Eurozone: why Latvia joined before Lithuania

-O., Sprūds, A. Baltic-German Strategic Engagement: Realignment after the Eurocrisis?. Latvian Institute of International Affairs, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Retrieved from http://liia.lv/site/docs/StrategyTalks2013_A5_GALA.pdf BNS, 2012, January 2. D.Grybauskaitė: Lietuvai nerealu 2014 metais įsivesti eurą [D.Grybauskaitė: euro adoption in 2014 is unrealistic for Lithuania]. Delfi.lt. Retrieved from http://www.delfi.lt/verslas/verslas/dgrybauskaite-lietuvai-nerealu-2014-metais-isivesti-eura.d?id=53635625 Caporale, G.M., Ciferri, A., Girardi

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The index of tourist satisfaction with Lithuania

References [1] Al-Majali, M. M. (2012). International Tourists Satisfaction: Case of Jordan. International Business Research, 5(9), 210-216. [2] European Commission (2014). Tourism industry sub-sectors. Country report: Lithuania. Internet access: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/tourism-business-portal/documents/business/internationalisation/lithuania_country_report.pdf [Accessed October 8, 2014]. [3] Grigaliūnaitė, V., & Pilelienė, L. (2014). Rural Tourist Satisfaction Index: A Case of Lithuania

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Populism in Lithuania: Defining the Research Tradition

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Aleknonis, Gintaras. “European Parliament Elections in Lithuania: Populist Competition in the Shadow of the Presidential Vote.” Political Preferences 9 (2014): 39–56. 2. Aleknonis, Gintaras. “Visuomenė ir žiniasklaida užburtame rate. Nuo sistemos vergo iki ‘ketvirtosios valdžios’”: 673-689. In: Regnum est: 1990 m. Kovo 11-osios Nepriklausomybės Aktui – 20. Liber Amicorum Vytautui Landsbergiui: mokslo straipsnių rinkinys. Vilnius: Mykolo Romerio universiteto Leidybos centras, 2010. 3. Aleksandravičius, Egidijus. Kas iškirto

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Phytobenthos Cyanobacteria Species New To Lithuanian Rivers

). A nonymous , 2009: Aplinkos apsaugos agentūra (paskutinis prisijungimas 2012 m. gruodžio 6 d.) ( http://gis.gamta.lt/baseinuvaldymas/#x=492567&y=6115527&l=1 ). A nonymous , 2010: Paviršinių vandens telkinių vertinimas. – Aplinkos apsaugos agentūra, Vilnius. A rbačiauskas K., 2006: Upių ekologinės būklės nustatymo pagal bentofaunos rodiklius rekomendacijos. − Vilniaus universitetas, Ekologijos institutas; ataskaita. B akūnaitė J., K ostkevičienė J., 1998: Studies on algae in the Skroblus river basin (South East of Lithuania). – Botanica

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Contribution to the Lithuanian flora of lichens and allied fungi. IV.

Lithuanian flora of lichens and allied fungi. III. - Botanica Lithuanica, 17(1): 39-46. Orange A., James P.W., White F.J., 2001: Microchemical methods for the identification of lichens. - London. Oset M., 2010: The lichen genus Stereocaulon in Poland II. S. alpinum, S. paschale and S. taeniarum . - Botanica Lithuanica, 16: 37-42. Oset M., Kukwa M., 2010: The lichen genus Pertusaria in Poland I. P. multipuncta and P. ophthalmiza . - Acta Mycologica, 45(2): 231-238. Randlane T., Martin L., 2011: Eesti

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Supplemented checklist of lichens and allied fungi of Lithuania

Notiser, 131: 259–262. M otiejūnaitė J., 1999: Checklist of lichens and allied fungi of Lithuania. – Botanica Lithuanica, 5(3): 251–269. M otiejūnaitė J., 2002: Lapiškosios ir krūmiškosios kerpės. Lietuvos grybai, 13(1). – Vilnius. M otiejūnaitė J., 2016: Žiauberiškosios kerpės. Lietuvos grybai, 13(2). – Vilnius. M otiejūnaitė J., A lstrup V., R andlane T., H imelbrant D., S tončius D., H ermansson J., U rbanavichus G., S uija A., F ritz Ö., P rigodina L ukošienė I., J ohansson P., 2008: New or noteworthy lichens, lichenicolous and

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Orchard aphids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidoidea) of Lithuania: a century of research

* The paper is dedicated to Prof. Wacław W ojciechowski in recognition of his great contribution to the taxonomy and faunistics of Hemiptera. REFERENCES B ašilova J. 2006. Currant inhabiting aphids of Lithuania (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Pemphigidae, Aphididae). MSc thesis, Vilnius University. (in Lithuanian) B ašilova J. 2010a. The application of discriminant analysis to identify Cryptomyzus aphids. Žemdirbystė=Agriculture 97 (4): 99–106. B ašilova J. 2010b. Biosystematic study of the aphid (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae

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