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The Federal Structure of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th–18th Centuries

, Paris 1952. Fiszma S., The Polish Renaissance and its European Context, Indiana 1988. Gierowski J.A., The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the XVIII th Century. From Anarchy to Well – organized State , Kraków 1996, Grodecki R., Działalność gospodarcza Kazimierza Wielkiego , [in:] Polska Piastowska [ Economic Activity of Casimir the Great, [in:] Piast’s Poland ], Grodecki R., Dzieje wewnętrzne Polski w XIII wieku, [in:] Polska Piastowska [ Poland in 13 th Century [in:] Piast’s Poland ], Warszawa 1969. Grodziski S., Salmonowicz

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The structure of Volume III of the National Atlas of Lithuania and techniques of cartographic visualization

Literature Beconytė G., 1999, Information modeling and data--bases in cartographic project . In: A. Česnulevičius (ed.), Thematical cartography of Lithuania after independent restores . Vilnius: Vilnius University, pp. 139–147. Beconytė G., 2001, Requirements in thematic cartography . “Geography” Vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 47–53. Bugorevičienė R., 1999, The works of Lithuania thematical mapping in the laboratory of Cartography of Vilnius University . In: A. Česnulevičius (ed.), Thematical cartography of Lithuania after independent restores

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Practical Problems of Legal Regulation of Customs Duties Developing an International Trade Between the Republic of Lithuania And East Asian Countries

., 2015. Rules of origin and the use of free trade agreements: a literature review. World Customs Journal, 9(1), pp.43-58. Jusčius, V., 2006. Ekonomikos internacionalizacijos ir globalizacijos poveikis gamybos - paskirstymo - vartojimo santykių raidai. Habilitacijos procedūrai teikiamų mokslo darbų apžvalga. Kaunas: Kauno technologijos universitetas. Langvinienė, N., Žitkienė, R., 2011. Opportunities for Lithuania to become a full member of international services market. Societal Studies, 3(3), pp.929-944. Laurinavičius, A

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International Journal of Area Studies
A Journal of Vytautas Magnus University
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Work on the historical atlas of the sixteenth-century Poland


The author begins with presentation of a programme of creating the detailed cartographic picture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century, proposed by Stanisław Smolka from the Jagiellonian University at the first congress of Polish historians in Cracow in 1880. This initiative was partially realised in the atlas of Ruthenian lands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the turn of the 16th and 17th century created by Aleksander Jabłonowski and printed in 1904 in Vienna. When Poland regained its independence, it became possible to organize further works. As their results two maps were designed, prepared and issued in the interwar period: the general map of the sixteenth-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania created by Jan Jakubowski, published in 1927 and 1928, and the map of Cracow Voivodship of the Four-Year Sejm period (1788–1792) elaborated by Karol Buczek with cooperation of several other persons and published in 1930 in Cracow.

The main topic of this article is a series of maps with commentaries prepared collectively in the Institute of History of Polish Academy of Sciences, entitled Atlas historyczny Polski. Mapy szczegółowe szesnastego wieku (Historical Atlas of Poland. Detailed maps of the 16th century) which includes Polish lands of the Crown. From the planned eight volumes with maps of individual voivodships or their groups, six were published successively in the years 1966–2018 and the last two are prepared for publishing in 2020. The author presents subject of the series and particularly contents of the main maps at the scale of 1:250,000.

This most detailed geographical and historical analysis of a large part of old Poland depicts the area in the 16th century, but it can also facilitate the process of gaining deeper knowledge about the history of these lands in the earlier and later centuries.

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Political and administrative divisions of Ukrainian lands on the 16th century maps


The author discusses the first maps of Ukrainian lands within the borders of various countries, reflecting their political and administrative division, which were published in the 16th century.

State and administration borders in Ukrainian territories were presented on the map of Southern Sarmatia (1526) by the Polish cartographer B. Wapowski and on the wall map of Europe (1554) by the Dutch cartographer G. Mercator. Maps by S. Münster and G. Gastaldi, including names of individual administrative units without reflecting state and administrative borders, were taken into account. A thorough analysis was carried out of the territorial division of Ukrainian territories on maps in the atlases by A. Ortelius (maps of Poland by W. Grodecki and A. Pograbka), on the maps of Lithuania and Taurica Chersonesus in the atlases by G. Mercator, including their subsequent adaptations. A number of inaccuracies regarding the location of state and administrative borders as well as names of administrative units have been revealed. Particular attention has been paid to the manner of presenting administrative borders.

It was established that in those times no special attention was paid to the presentation of political and administrative divisions on maps. During subsequent editions of maps, no national and administrative borders were updated. Maps could be published without changes for decades. Map publishers often borrowed unverified information, which led to duplication of errors.

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The Difficult and Long Way of Ukraine to NATO

perspectives for accessing the structures of the European Union] [in:] Zjednoczona Europa a Polska, Litwa i Ukraina [United Europe and Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine], ed. L. Gawor, Lublin 2003, pp. 134-135. Yekelchyk S., Narodziny nowoczesnego narodu [Ukraine. The Birth of the Modern Nation], Kraków 2009, p. 293. Декларация про державний суверенітет України [Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine], The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine

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