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Sigitas Radzevičius, Brigita Tumakovaitė and Andrej Spiridonov

of America Special Papers, 321, 47-66. Bitinas, J. 2013. Structural map of the top of Upper Wenlokian of Lower Silurian of the West Lithuania area. Lithuanian Geological Survey. Calner, M. 1999. Stratigraphy, facies development, and depositional dynamics of the Late Wenlock Fröjel Formation, Gotland, Sweden. GFF, 121, 13-24. Calner, M. and Jeppsson, L. 2003. Carbonate platform evolution and conodont stratigraphy during the middle Silurian Mulde Event, Gotland, Sweden. Geological Magazine, 140, 173

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Algirdas Gaigalas, Anna Pazdur, Adam Michczynski, Jacek Pawlyta, Arūnas Kleišmantas, Monika Melešytė, Eugenija Rudnickaitė, Vaidotas Kazakauskas and Julius Vainorius

[1] Bronk Ramsey C, 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program OxCal. Radiocarbon 43(2A): 355–363. [2] Damušytė A, 2005. Fossil molluscs of the Lithuanian Baltic coast. Quaternary Geology and Landforming Processes. In: Proceedings of the International Field Symposium, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, September 4–9, 2005. Apatity, 2005: 15–16. [3] Gaigalas A and Dvareckas V, 2002. The evolution of river valleys in Lithuania from deglaciation to recent changes and data from the

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Valentinas Baltrūnas, Fedor E. Maksimov, Vladislav Yu. Kuznetsov, Bronislavas Karmaza and Valentas Katinas

References Baltrūnas V, 1995. Pleistoceno stratigrafija ir koreliacija (Stratigraphy and Correlation of Pleistocene). Vilnius, Academia: 180 pp (in Lithuanian with English summary). Baltrūnas V, 2002. Stratigrphical subdivision and correlation of Pleis-tocene deposits in Lithuania (methodical problems). Vilnius, Insti-tute of Geology: 74 pp. Baltrūnas V and Bitinas A, 1994. The polyvariance in stratigraphic correlation as a significant problem of the Lithuanian Pleistocene studies. Geologija 17: 144

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Stanislaw Fedorowicz and Algirdas Gaigalas

References Gaigalas A, 2000. Correlation of 14 C and OSL dating of Late Pleistocene deposits in Lithuania. Geochronometria 19: 7-12. Gaigalas A and Fedorowicz S, 2002. Thermoluminescence dates of Mid- and Late Pleistocene sediments in Vilkiśkes exposure, Eastern Lithuania. Geologija 38: 31-40. Gaigalas A and Fedorowicz S, 2007. Sedimentological interpretation thermoluminescence (TL) ages of Pleistocene aquatic sediments to follow Lithuanian example. 9 th International

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Jonas Mazeika, Rimantas Petrosius and Rutile Pukiene

References Almenas K, Kaliatka A and Uspuras E, 1998. Ignalina RBMK-1500, a source book. Ignalina Safety Analysis Group, Lithuanian Energy Institute: 198 pp. Bush RP, Smith GM and Smith IF, 1984. Carbon-14 waste management. EUR 8749 EN. Luxembourg, Commission of the European Communities: 214 pp. Gupta SH and Polach HA, 1985. Radiocarbon practices at ANU, handbook. ANU Canberra: 173 pp. [IAEA, 1998]. Principles for limiting releases of radioactive

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Jonas Mažeika, Rimantė Guobytė, Gintautas Kibirkštis, Rimantas Petrošius, Žana Skuratovič and Julius Taminskas

A and Gikytė K, 1977. Raisto ir apypelkio hidrologinė charakteristika (Characteristic of the hydrology of raised bog environment). Geografinis metraštis 15: 35-54 (in Lithuanian). Ekwurzel B, Schlosser P, Smethie WM, Plummer N, Busenberg E, Weppering RL and Stute M, 1994. Dating of shallow groundwater: comparison of the transient tracers 3 H/ 3 He, chlorofluorocarbons and 85 Kr. Water Resources Research 30: 1693-1708. Grigelytė M, 1977. Durpių klodo sandara (The structure bog peat). Geografinis metraštis

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Ieva Bauziene, Jonas Mazeika and Zana Skuratovic

. Soil and Tillage Research 69(1–2): 85–98, DOI 10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00130-7. [8] Le Bissonnais Y, Montier C, Jamagne M, Daroussin J and King D, 2001. Mapping erosion risk for cultivated soil in France. Catena 46(2–3): 207–220, DOI 10.1016/S0341-8162(01)00167-9. [9] Lubytė J and Antanaitis A, 2004. Migration of Radionuclides in Arable Land of Lithuania. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 12(1): 22–29, DOI 10

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Mirosława Kupryjanowicz

history and climate changes in Lithuania during Late Glacial and Holocene, according pollen and diatom data. PACT 54: 13-30. Kabailienė M, Stančikaitė M and Ostrauskas T, 1997. Living conditions and activity of man in the environs of Lake Grūda in the end of Late Glacial and Holocene. Gologija 2: 44-52. Kisielienė D, Stančikaitė M, Merkevicius A and Namickienė R, 2005. Vegetation responses to climatic changes during the Late Glacial according to palaeobotanical data in western Lithuania; a preliminary results. In

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Stanisław Fedorowicz

Europy Środkowej (Methodological aspects of luminescence dating of Central Europe's neopleistocene deposits). Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego: 156pp (in Polish). Fedorowicz S, 2006b. TL age of Upper Pleistocene stratified deposits measured with the additive, regeneration and RI methods. Geological Quaterly 50(2): 211-114. Gaigalas A and Fedorowicz S, 2002. Thermoluminescence dates Midand Late Pleistocene in exposure Eastern Lithuania. Geologija 38: 31-40. Gaigalas A, Fedorowicz S and

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Marina Valentukeviciene, Aukse Amosenkiene and Regimantas Dauknys

Quality changes of drinking water in the water supply network (case study from Lithuania)

The purpose of this research was to examine water quality changes by distributing in to the water supply network. Water samples were collected from Varena town (Lithuania) drinking water distribution system fed by groundwater from well field. Parameters related to undesirable increasing of nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been measured considering these samples: pH, conductivity, concentration of total iron, manganese, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites. Results showed that groundwater from well field were extremely susceptible to favor bacterial growth in the pipelines. The occurrence of nitrites and nitrates in drinking water samples correlated positively with the lengths of old iron pipelines and negatively with the content of newly laid pipelines. The obtained results also showed that the potential nitrates increasing induced by the distribution of treated water could be reduced if: nitrates levels were below detection limits at the outlet of the water treatment plant; biological ammonium removal treatment implementation should reduce the levels of the nitrates and nitrites of the treated supplied water. Although the nitrates concentration increase in drinking water distribution systems, the issues with nitrites accumulation are rare in Lithuania. However, such processes still need to be proved in more extensive investigation, but these research results could be applied as a basic scenario.