of America Special Papers, 321, 47-66. Bitinas, J. 2013. Structural map of the top of Upper Wenlokian of Lower Silurian of the West Lithuania area. Lithuanian Geological Survey. Calner, M. 1999. Stratigraphy, facies development, and depositional dynamics of the Late Wenlock Fröjel Formation, Gotland, Sweden. GFF, 121, 13-24. Calner, M. and Jeppsson, L. 2003. Carbonate platform evolution and conodont stratigraphy during the middle Silurian Mulde Event, Gotland, Sweden. Geological Magazine, 140, 173
Sigitas Radzevičius, Brigita Tumakovaitė and Andrej Spiridonov
References Demographic Yearbook (Demografijos metraštis), 2007: Vilnius: Statistikos departamentas prie LRV. Demographic Yearbook (Demografijos metraštis), 2008: Vilnius: Statistikos departamentas prie LRV. Department of Statistics of the Republic of Lithuania, database site: http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank Department of Statistics of the Republic of Lithuania, news pages: http://db1.stat.gov.lt/lt/news Gollangs, S. 2009: Bebi
Algirdas Gaigalas, Anna Pazdur, Adam Michczynski, Jacek Pawlyta, Arūnas Kleišmantas, Monika Melešytė, Eugenija Rudnickaitė, Vaidotas Kazakauskas and Julius Vainorius
 Bronk Ramsey C, 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program OxCal. Radiocarbon 43(2A): 355–363.  Damušytė A, 2005. Fossil molluscs of the Lithuanian Baltic coast. Quaternary Geology and Landforming Processes. In: Proceedings of the International Field Symposium, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, September 4–9, 2005. Apatity, 2005: 15–16.  Gaigalas A and Dvareckas V, 2002. The evolution of river valleys in Lithuania from deglaciation to recent changes and data from the
Valentinas Baltrūnas, Fedor E. Maksimov, Vladislav Yu. Kuznetsov, Bronislavas Karmaza and Valentas Katinas
References Baltrūnas V, 1995. Pleistoceno stratigrafija ir koreliacija (Stratigraphy and Correlation of Pleistocene). Vilnius, Academia: 180 pp (in Lithuanian with English summary). Baltrūnas V, 2002. Stratigrphical subdivision and correlation of Pleis-tocene deposits in Lithuania (methodical problems). Vilnius, Insti-tute of Geology: 74 pp. Baltrūnas V and Bitinas A, 1994. The polyvariance in stratigraphic correlation as a significant problem of the Lithuanian Pleistocene studies. Geologija 17: 144
References Bubnys, A. 1998: Vokiečių okupuota Lietuva. Vilnius. Demographic Yearbook, 2007, Vilnius: Statistics Lithuania. Demographic Yearbook 2005, Vilnius: Statistics Lithuania. Demographic Yearbook 2008, Vilnius: Statistics Lithuania. Eberhardt P. (1997). Przemiany narodnościowe na Litwie, Przegląd Wschodni , Warszawa: Eurostat's database (18 June 2008). Gaučas, P. 1978: Gyventojų skaičius
When we compare the contemporary ethnic structure and national policy of Poland and its eastern neighbours, we can see clear asymmetry in both quantitative and legal-institutional aspects. There is currently a markedly smaller population of Ukrainians, Belarusians and Lithuanians living in Poland than the Polish population in the territories of our eastern neighbours. At the same time, the national minorities in Poland enjoy wider rights and better conditions to operate than Poles living in Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania.
Additional complicating factor in bilateral relations between national minority and the home state is different political status of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine and different processes of transformation the consequence of which is differentiated state of political relations of Poland with its eastern neighbours. Lithuania, like Poland, is a member of EU, Ukraine, outside the structures of European integration, pursued a variable foreign policy, depending on the ruling options and the economic situation, and Belarus, because of internal policy which is unacceptable in the EU countries, is located on the political periphery of Europe.
Donatas Valiukas, Audronė Galvonaitė and Algimantas Česnulevičius
References Climate Atlas of Lithuania. (2013). Vilnius: Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service. Galvonaitė, A., Misiūnienė, M., Valiukas D. and Buitkuvienė, M.S. (2007). Climate of Lithuania. Vilnuius: ARX Baltica. Climate Guide. Natural events (2000). Vilnius Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service. Galvonaitė, A. and Valiukas, D. (2005). Lietuvos klimato kaita (1991–2003) [Lithuanian climate change]. Vilnius, 80 p. (in Lithuanian). WMO. (2008). Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation (WMO-No. 100). World
Irena Kriščiukaitienė, Tomas Baležentis, Aistė Galnaitytė and Virginia Namiotko
This paper presents a methodology for flood risk mapping as envisaged by the Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks [Directive 2007/60/EC]. Specifically, we aimed at identifying the types of flood damage that can be estimated given data availability in Lithuania. Furthermore, we present the main sources of data and the associated cost functions. The methodology covers the following main types of flood threats: risk to inhabitants, risk to economic activity, and social risk. A multi-criteria framework for aggregation of different risks is proposed to provide a comprehensive appraisal of flood risk. On the basis of the proposed research, flood risk maps have been prepared for Lithuania. These maps are available for each type of flood risk (i.e. inhabitants, economic losses, social risk) as well as for aggregate risk. The results indicate that flood risk management is crucial for western and central Lithuania, whereas other parts of the country are not likely to suffer from significant losses due to flooding.
Stanislaw Fedorowicz and Algirdas Gaigalas
References Gaigalas A, 2000. Correlation of 14 C and OSL dating of Late Pleistocene deposits in Lithuania. Geochronometria 19: 7-12. Gaigalas A and Fedorowicz S, 2002. Thermoluminescence dates of Mid- and Late Pleistocene sediments in Vilkiśkes exposure, Eastern Lithuania. Geologija 38: 31-40. Gaigalas A and Fedorowicz S, 2007. Sedimentological interpretation thermoluminescence (TL) ages of Pleistocene aquatic sediments to follow Lithuanian example. 9 th International
Jonas Mazeika, Rimantas Petrosius and Rutile Pukiene
References Almenas K, Kaliatka A and Uspuras E, 1998. Ignalina RBMK-1500, a source book. Ignalina Safety Analysis Group, Lithuanian Energy Institute: 198 pp. Bush RP, Smith GM and Smith IF, 1984. Carbon-14 waste management. EUR 8749 EN. Luxembourg, Commission of the European Communities: 214 pp. Gupta SH and Polach HA, 1985. Radiocarbon practices at ANU, handbook. ANU Canberra: 173 pp. [IAEA, 1998]. Principles for limiting releases of radioactive