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Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

Abstract

After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

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Four Riders of the Apocalypse of the Polish Bureaucracy

społecznoekonomiczne Jana Pawła II (Modern Socio- Economic Concepts of John Paul II). Lithuania, No. 1/2.

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The Level of Development of the Digital Economy in Poland and Selected European Countries: A Comparative Analysis

Abstract

An assessment of the degree of the development of the digital economy in Poland in comparison to chosen European countries is the main purpose of the paper. The methodology of the conducted research is based on the analysis of secondary sources and applying statistical methods. In order to make the comparison in methodically correct manner, synthetic measures of the development of the e-economy were used in the form of two indexes: NRI (Networked Readiness Index) and DESI (Digital Economy and Society Index). On the basis of available statistical data, four European countries were confronted with Poland. Results of the analysis indicate a relatively unfavorable situation of Poland.

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The Impact of the Problems Faced by Online Customers on Ecommerce

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify the behavior of customers in the online environment. We analyzed the evolution, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of this type of commerce, and its implications on the consumers. In order to identify the customers’ behavior online, we selected three variables which are characterized by time intervals of the latest online order, and six variables which analyze the main problems faced by consumers of goods/services bought online (a long shipping time, damaged products, non-compliant products, fraud related issues, underperforming complaint system, technical issues, lack of customer and legal aspects). Online commerce is less developed in the Czech Republic, Romania, Poland, Lithuania, Ireland, Bulgaria, Estonia, Slovenia and Norway. But, the advantages of ecommerce weigh more for the consumer than the problems they face, for example: online shoppers will continue to make online purchases even if they have experienced delays in delivering goods/services, damaged products, online fraud, technical problems or difficulties in finding information about the warranty of goods/services.

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The Analysis of Institutional Environment in the Area of Product Market Competition in the New EU Member States: What Do the Data Say About the Models of Capitalism Emerging in the CEE Countries?

.7 1.1 70.0 70.6 0.6 Latvia 83.6 84.8 1.2 52.7 58.4 5.7 70.0 78.6 8.6 Lithuania 82.8 92.9 10.1 65.1 63.8 -1.3 70.0 80.0 10.0 Poland 68.3 75.5 7.2 30.3 46.5 16.2 70.0 68.7 -1.3 Romania 70.1 87.5 17.4 68.9 65.6 -3.3 55.0 66.1 11.1 Slovakia 81.9 80.1 -1.8 42.4 49.5 7.1 70.0 68.4 -1.6 Slovenia 55.6 58.6 3.0 45.3 0.0 -45.3 85.0 82.0 -3.0 Germany 58.4 61.5 3.1 28.6 41.3 12.7 70.0 90.0 20.0 Spain 55.4 58

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Changes in the fiscal policy of EU states after the 2008 crisis

below 3% is a step in the right direction. However, this is only a preliminary step toward debt reduction. It should be remembered that every budget deficit generates debt, even if it does not exceed 3%. Table 1 The situation of member states in the context of the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure in 2017 (EU Commission opinion from March 2018) Procedure category Member states Lack of economic imbalance Austria, Belgium, Denmark. Estonia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, United Kingdom

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Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

reproductive integration?, Post-Soviet Affairs, Vol. 32, Iss. 6, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1060586X.2015.1115198?journalCode=rpsa20 (14.09.2017). Saboniene, A. (2009), Lithuanian export competitiveness: comparison with other Baltic States, Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics, No. 2, pp. 49-57. Saubanov, K., Bagautdinova, N., Maklakova, N. (2014), The state of competitiveness of Russia on the world food market, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 28. Shirov, A. A., Sabchishina, K. E

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Innovation Process Planning Model in the Bpmn Standard

[at] Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Knowledge Management, 5-6 September 2013, Kanuas, Lithuania (in print). [25] Jurczyk-Bunkowska M., Jungowski K. - Solutions for innovation management system: approach based on Theory of Constraints [at] Proceedings of the 12th International CINet Conference: Doing More with Less. Aarhus, Denmark, September 2011, pp. 425-435. [26] Jurczyk-Bunkowska M. - Environmental scanning as an element of innovation process planning: context of management horizons [at] Strategic Management Society

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Using Material Flow Cost Accounting (Mfca) to Identify Benefits of Eco-Efficiency and Cleaner Production in a Paper and Pulp Manufacturing Organization

improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal. US Patent, 6325001B. [42] Sinclair-Desgagne, B., 2004. Corporate Strategies for Managing Environmental Risk. The International Library of Environmental Economics and Policy xx:1-7. Scientific Series 2004s-43, Montreal. [43] South African National Cleaner Production centre, 2013. Case study in good organization management and governance practices (online). Available http://unido.org/cp [44] Staniskis, J.K., Stasiskiene, Z., 2013. Environmental management accounting in Lithuania

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A Model of a Tacit Knowledge Transformation for the Service Department in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

). In: A. Stabryła, S. Wawak, ed., 2014. Problemy zarządzania organizacjami w społeczeństwie informacyjnym . Kraków: Mfiles. [49] Rabiner, L., Juang, B. H., 1993. Fundamentals of speech recognition . New York: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. [50] Ragsdell, G., Probets S. and Ahmed G., 2013. Knowledge audit: findings from a case study in the energy sector. In: 14th European Conference on Knowledge Management . Kaunus University of Technology, Lithuania, 5-6 September 2013, pp.584-593. [51] Salmon, K., Pipe, M. E., Malloy, A. and Mackay, K., 2012

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