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Renata Walczak, Marlena Piekut, Magdalena Kludacz-Alessandri, Biruta Sloka, Ligita Šimanskiene and Tiiu Paas

Abstract

After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

Open access

Miroslaw Moroz

Abstract

An assessment of the degree of the development of the digital economy in Poland in comparison to chosen European countries is the main purpose of the paper. The methodology of the conducted research is based on the analysis of secondary sources and applying statistical methods. In order to make the comparison in methodically correct manner, synthetic measures of the development of the e-economy were used in the form of two indexes: NRI (Networked Readiness Index) and DESI (Digital Economy and Society Index). On the basis of available statistical data, four European countries were confronted with Poland. Results of the analysis indicate a relatively unfavorable situation of Poland.

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Witold Kieżun

społecznoekonomiczne Jana Pawła II (Modern Socio- Economic Concepts of John Paul II). Lithuania, No. 1/2.

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Magdalena Jurczyk-Bunkowska

[at] Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Knowledge Management, 5-6 September 2013, Kanuas, Lithuania (in print). [25] Jurczyk-Bunkowska M., Jungowski K. - Solutions for innovation management system: approach based on Theory of Constraints [at] Proceedings of the 12th International CINet Conference: Doing More with Less. Aarhus, Denmark, September 2011, pp. 425-435. [26] Jurczyk-Bunkowska M. - Environmental scanning as an element of innovation process planning: context of management horizons [at] Strategic Management Society

Open access

Mishelle Doorasamy

improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal. US Patent, 6325001B. [42] Sinclair-Desgagne, B., 2004. Corporate Strategies for Managing Environmental Risk. The International Library of Environmental Economics and Policy xx:1-7. Scientific Series 2004s-43, Montreal. [43] South African National Cleaner Production centre, 2013. Case study in good organization management and governance practices (online). Available http://unido.org/cp [44] Staniskis, J.K., Stasiskiene, Z., 2013. Environmental management accounting in Lithuania

Open access

Adam Dudek and Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

). In: A. Stabryła, S. Wawak, ed., 2014. Problemy zarządzania organizacjami w społeczeństwie informacyjnym . Kraków: Mfiles. [49] Rabiner, L., Juang, B. H., 1993. Fundamentals of speech recognition . New York: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. [50] Ragsdell, G., Probets S. and Ahmed G., 2013. Knowledge audit: findings from a case study in the energy sector. In: 14th European Conference on Knowledge Management . Kaunus University of Technology, Lithuania, 5-6 September 2013, pp.584-593. [51] Salmon, K., Pipe, M. E., Malloy, A. and Mackay, K., 2012