Introduction: Islamophobia in Eastern Europe?
A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of Islamophobia. At this point, the historically informed reader might question the newsworthiness of our initial statement. Unease, reservation, and even fear and hatred against Islam and Muslims have a long tradition in Europe ( Benz 2017 ). Since Edward Said’s (1978) seminal study on ‘Orientalism’, it is a commonplace to acknowledge that the West has associated Islam with negative images and stereotypes for hundreds of years. The essential novelty of Europe’s old
), securitization of migration ( Bourbeau 2011 ; Androvičová 2015 ; Novotný 2017 ), and Islamophobia ( Ostřanský 2018 ). The concept of Islamophobia in the Czech Republic is a relevant concept for our research because the target audience of Zeman’s speeches “wants” to listen to such framing. Of course, this is in accordance with the theory of populism ( Mudde 2004 ).
In regard to the fact that the President can be considered without doubt to be a moral authority or a “moral entrepreneur” (cf. Cohen 2011 ), the labels that he creates and introduces into dominant political and
policy discourse, which is analyzed here. First, I present the research design of my paper (research methods and research question; sources of data) and after that I turn to the basic theoretical framework of this paper: theory of securitization. Finally, I reflect the key point of this theory – speech act. I will not reflect all speech acts in political or societal discourse but focus on those that manifested anti-Muslim rhetoric. Lastly, in the analytical part of my paper, I will introduce my findings about the characteristics of securitization of Islamophobia during
Islamophobia is a rather new term in scholarly fields but it is an old concept ( Cesari 2009 ; López 2011 , 569). All the variants of Islam and Muslims were perceived as a threat in Europe from its arrival in 7th century to at least second half of the 16th century ( Said 2003 , 59, 75) after the decisive bottle by Lepante as a turning point meant the irreversible retreat of Islam and Muslims from Europe. In the Renaissance period, the process of othering the Muslims and Islam [mainly – and rather undistinguishably – Ottomans or Persians] in an old continent
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Sweden in spotlight for biggest asylum share. 13 May 2015. Web. 25 May 2015 <http://www.thelocal.se/20150513/sweden-in-spotlight-for-biggest-asylum-share>.
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Islamophobia, may be having an impact on the way cultural diversity and migrant groups, such as the Chinese, are being perceived. As a way of engaging with these issues, a brief overview of Australian multiculturalism is presented in the next section of the paper.
Debate continues on how best to understand the relationship between ethnicity and nation ( van Reekum, Duyvendak and Bertossi 2012 ). This debate is relatively pronounced in settler societies such as Australia. In Australia, the imagined nation assumes migration and therefore a
tried to make Holocaust denial a criminal offence but dealt with it through a culture of civility and censure.
Do you think that racism, and in particular Islamophobia, are growing problems in this country, and what can politics do to fight against this rise?
Most of the evidence suggests that racial discrimination, say in relation to jobs, persists. Ethnic minorities continue to make progress in terms of socio-economic mobility and participation in public life, but that’s mainly because of the extra qualifications they achieve rather than because there is a
reaffirmed in the Situation of Fundamental Rights in the EU, a resolution adopted by the European Parliament in 2015, ostensibly to prevent discrimination against any religious or non-religious community and to guarantee equal treatment for all. This resolution also expresses concern that issues of religious insult and blasphemy laws could threaten freedom of speech in the EU. Although antisemitism, Islamophobia and all forms of fanaticism and attacks on religious buildings are condemned, it seems as if attacks on religion are in fact permitted while damage in the physical