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Islamophobia Without Muslims? The “Contact Hypothesis” as an Explanation for Anti-Muslim Attitudes – Eastern European Societies in a Comparative Perspective

Introduction: Islamophobia in Eastern Europe? A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of Islamophobia. At this point, the historically informed reader might question the newsworthiness of our initial statement. Unease, reservation, and even fear and hatred against Islam and Muslims have a long tradition in Europe ( Benz 2017 ). Since Edward Said’s (1978) seminal study on ‘Orientalism’, it is a commonplace to acknowledge that the West has associated Islam with negative images and stereotypes for hundreds of years. The essential novelty of Europe’s old

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“This is a Controlled Invasion”: The Czech President Miloš Zeman’s Populist Perception of Islam and Immigration as Security Threats

), securitization of migration ( Bourbeau 2011 ; Androvičová 2015 ; Novotný 2017 ), and Islamophobia ( Ostřanský 2018 ). The concept of Islamophobia in the Czech Republic is a relevant concept for our research because the target audience of Zeman’s speeches “wants” to listen to such framing. Of course, this is in accordance with the theory of populism ( Mudde 2004 ). In regard to the fact that the President can be considered without doubt to be a moral authority or a “moral entrepreneur” (cf. Cohen 2011 ), the labels that he creates and introduces into dominant political and

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Securitization of the Migration Crisis and Islamophobic Rhetoric: The 2016 Slovak Parliamentary Elections as a Case Study

policy discourse, which is analyzed here. First, I present the research design of my paper (research methods and research question; sources of data) and after that I turn to the basic theoretical framework of this paper: theory of securitization. Finally, I reflect the key point of this theory – speech act. I will not reflect all speech acts in political or societal discourse but focus on those that manifested anti-Muslim rhetoric. Lastly, in the analytical part of my paper, I will introduce my findings about the characteristics of securitization of Islamophobia during

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Editorial: Reflections on Islamophobia in Central and Eastern Europe

Islamophobia is a rather new term in scholarly fields but it is an old concept ( Cesari 2009 ; López 2011 , 569). All the variants of Islam and Muslims were perceived as a threat in Europe from its arrival in 7th century to at least second half of the 16th century ( Said 2003 , 59, 75) after the decisive bottle by Lepante as a turning point meant the irreversible retreat of Islam and Muslims from Europe. In the Renaissance period, the process of othering the Muslims and Islam [mainly – and rather undistinguishably – Ottomans or Persians] in an old continent

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