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HJ Eberhardt

Abstract

The 51st German Plant Protection Conference was held by the Federal Biological Institute of Agriculture and Forestry [BiologischeBundesanstaltfür Land- und Forstwirtschaft] in Halle/Saale from 5th to 8th October 1998. The attendance of over 1,000 registered participants reflected the continued lively interest shown in the conference. Some 330 oral contributions, assigned to the various sections, were presented in five parallel sessions.

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HF Dymond

Abstract

In 1994, the European Smoking Tobacco Association (ESTA) commissioned and reported a study undertaken in the Netherlands to determine the making habits of roll-your-own smokers. The study included laboratory smoking of the collected smoking articles for the determination of tar and nicotine. In 1997, ESTA commissioned a similar study for Germany involving German fine-cut smokers. This paper reviews the data produced from the German study and compares the data with that produced in the Netherlands. An independent market research agency recruited known smokers of fine-cut tobacco. They were given the most popular brand of tobacco and the most popular brand of booklet paper. The consumers were instructed to make a fine-cut smoking article for testing each time they wanted to smoke. These smoking articles were placed in protective tins and collected by the research agency for analysis. An independent laboratory in Germany undertook the smoking and analysis. This study shows that a German roll-your-own smoker uses an average of 830 mg tobacco and makes a product that is 7.6 mm in diameter. German booklet paper is slightly shorter than Dutch paper. German products are more cylindrical than Dutch products and this probably accounts for the much reduced variability of German products compared with Dutch products. The mean tar yield of these articles was 12 mg and the mean nicotine yield was 0.9 mg.

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HJ Eberhardt

Abstract

From 23.-26. September 1996 the Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft heldthe 50th ‘Deutsche Pflanzenschutztagung’ (German Plant Protection Conference) in Muensterwithmorethan 1000 participants. Approximately 350 presentations were classified into different specialities which were discussed in five parallel sessions. In addition, a poster session with 250 posters also included the culture and pesticide protection of the tobacco plant. The subjects treated in the various sessions were very broud. Besides the increasing importance of natural plant protection agents, modern biotechnological and genetic methods used for pest control and analysis of pest organisms in cultivars were a major discussion topic. Manufacturers of agrochemicals used the opportunity to present their newly developed products.

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W. Schulz and F. Seehofer

Abstract

The length of the butts left by the smokers was ascertained from approx. 40000 cigarette butts gathered in 1968 in the whole of the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin. In comparison with an examination made in 1959 it could be seen that the length of the butts is increasing. Thus the length of the butts of filter cigarettes increased by 8.5 mm (from 22.1 to 30.6 mm) and the length of the butts of cigarettes without filter by 6.3 mm (from 19.3 to 25.6 mm)

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J. Timm

Abstract

On the basis of numerous research results and data on the development of condensate contents of German cigarettes, their share of the market, the smoked length of cigarettes in laboratory tests as opposed to the average smoker, the pro capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the trends of the smokers' share, an estimate has been prepared in the Federal Republic on the yearly pro capita consumption of smoke condensates covering the years 1961-1969. The value for 1961 amounts to 40.2 gr., whereas for the year 1969 31.9 gr. Have been obtained. This means that the consumption of cigarette condensates in the Federal Republic has decreased during the last years. At a nearly constant share of smokers it can be seen that the consumption of smoke condensates per smoker has decreased by about 20 % during the years between 1961 and 1969 despite an increased cigarette consumption

Open access

J. Timm

Abstract

Numerous investigations and data on the development of smoke condensate and nicotine in German cigarettes, the changes in the market shares, the length of cigarettes smoked in laboratories and by the average consumer, and the per capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany were utilised in calculating the average delivery of smoke condensate and nicotine and for estimating the per capita consumption of moist and dry cigarette smoke condensate and the nicotine contained in it. In the period from 1961 to 1972 (for dry condensate figures are available only for 1966 to 1972) all these figures display a downward trend. Expressed in terms of the total population the reduction in moist condensate is about 28 %, nicotine about 27 % and dry condensate (for the shorter period 1966 to 1972) about 21 %. The percentages of smokers in the German population and among foreign workers, the development and age structure of the resident population and of the percentage of foreign workers were utilised to also ascertain from the above results the development of the condensate and nicotine consumption of the potential and actual smokers. The result is again a reduction of consumption of 27 % each for moist condensate and nicotine and 20 % for dry condensate (in the shorter period 1966 to 1972). If these figures are converted to the equivalent of cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961 the consumption of 22 cigarettes a smoker established for 1972 corresponds to a mere 11 cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961. The actual daily consumption at that time, however, was about 15 cigarettes a smoker

Open access

W. Schulz and F. Seehofer

Abstract

The influence of the economic depression on the length of cigarette butts in the Federal Republic of Germany was investigated in the summer of 1974. After the interruption of the continual increase in the butt lengths of filter cigarettes and plain cigarettes by the tobacco tax rise on 1st September 1972, there was a further decrease in the butt lengths untiI August 1974. This was 0.44 mm for filter cigarettes and 1.5 mm for plain cigarettes. The lengths of butts discarded by smokers were on average

Open access

J. Misfeld and J. Timm

Abstract

On the basis of numerous research results and data on the development of nicotine and condensate contents of German cigarettes, of their respective shares in the market, the smoked length of cigarettes, and of the pro capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany, an estimate has been prepared on the yearly pro capita consumption of smoke condensate and nicotine in the Federal Republic covering the years 1961-1970. The values for 1961 amount to 40.2 g of smoke condensate (crude) and to 2.04 g of nicotine. The values for 1970 are found to be only 29.4 g and 1.63 g respectively. That means that the consumption of smoke condensate and nicotine in the Federal Republic has decreased during the last ten years. The share of smokers having remained almost the same, the consumption of smoke condensate and nicotine per smoker is, as well, found to have decreased by about 27 % and 20 % respectively during the years between 1961 and 1970 despite an increased cigarette consumption.

Open access

J. Timm

Abstract

Numerous investigations and data on the development of smoke condensate and nicotine in German cigarettes, the changes in the market shares, the length of cigarettes smoked in laboratories and by the average consumer, and the per capita consumption of cigarettes in the Federal Republic of Germany were utilised in calculating the average delivery of smoke condensate and nicotine and for estimating the per capita consumption of moist and dry cigarette smoke condensate and the nicotine contained in it. In the period from 1961 to 1975 (for dry condensate figures are available only for 1966 to 1975) all these figures display a downward trend. Expressed in terms of the totaI population the reduction in moist condensate is about 31 %, nicotine about 40 % and dry condensate (for the shorter period 1966 to 1975) about 22 %. The percentages of smokers in the German population and among foreign workers, the development and age structure of the resident population and of the percentage of foreign workers were utilised to also ascertain from the above results the development of the condensate and nicotine consumption of the potentiaI and actual smokers. The result is again a reduction of consumption of approx. 36 % for moist condensate, of approx. 45 % for nicotine and 26 % for dry condensate (in the shorter period 1966 to 1975) a smoker. If these figures are converted to the equivalent of cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961 the consumption of 21 cigarettes a smoker established for 1975 corresponds to a mere 10 cigarettes of the type smoked in 1961. The actuaI daily consumption at that time, however, was about 15 cigarettes a smoker.