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Paula Trzaskawka

Abstract

The article deals with the comparison of key terminology in the field of copyright in the Polish, English, Japanese and German languages. The research material consists of copyright acts binding in Poland, Great Britain, the United States of America, Japan and Germany. The terminology has been compared in order to reveal similarities and differences in the meaning. Firstly, statutory terms from the Polish, English (British and American), German and Japanese acts will be presented and discussed. Also, a list of functional equivalents (Polish, English, German and Japanese) will be presented. The task was to search for functional equivalents, and if there is partial equivalence or no equivalence, an equivalent was provided according to techniques of providing equivalents for non-equivalent terms (c.f. Kłos, Matulewska, Nowak-Korcz 2007). They were made in such a way that equivalents will correspond with the reality of the laws in the above mentioned languages. The terms have been extracted with the usage of AntConc (corpus linguistics software). The method of analysis of comparable texts has been applied as well as the one based on three categories of equivalence by Šarčević (1997): “near equivalence”, “partial equivalence” and “non-equivalence”. Special attention has been paid to system-bound terminology existing in those five legal systems. To sum up, it should be borne in mind that the copyright law has been unified almost world-wide. As a result many countries have adopted similar or almost identical principles in this respect. Therefore, there is a significant convergence of meanings of analysed copyright terms with only slight differences resulting from deeply ingrained local and national legal traditions.

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Ljubica Kordić and Vesna Cigan

References Cigan, V. (2013). Representation of Students Learning German at Higher Edu- cation Institutions in Zagreb. Effectus Journal . Manuscript submitted for publication. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages - CEFR (2005) [ZEROJ (2005) Zajedniˇcki europski referentni okvir za jezike: uˇcenje, pouˇcavanje, vrednovanje. Vijeće Europe (2001)]. ˇ Skolska knjiga. Zagreb. Council of Europe (1982). Recommendation No. R (98) 6. Appendix to Recommen- dation No. R in (82) 18, Measures to be

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Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric

The Journal of University of Bialystok

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Katarzyna Budzynska, Michał Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka Budzyńska-Daca, Martin Hinton, John Lawrence, Sanjay Modgil, Matthias Thimm, Jacky Visser, Tomasz Żurek, Marcin Koszowy, Katie Atkinson, Kamila Dębowska-Kozłowska, Magdalena Kacprzak, Paweł Łupkowski, Barłomiej Skowron, Mariusz Urbański and Maria Załęska

Abstract

In September 2018, the ArgDiaP association, along with colleagues from Germany and the UK, organised one of the longest and most interdisciplinary series of events ever dedicated to argumentation - Warsaw Argumentation Week, WAW 2018. The eleven-day ‘week’ featured a five day graduate school on computational and linguistic perspectives on argumentation (3rd SSA school); five workshops: on systems and algorithms for formal argumentation (2nd SAFA), argumentation in relation to society (1st ArgSoc), philosophical approaches to argumentation (1st ArgPhil), legal argumentation (2ndMET-ARG) and argumentation in rhetoric (1st MET-RhET); and two conferences: on computational models of argumentation (7th COMMA conference) and on argumentation and corpus linguistics (16th ArgDiaP conference). WAW hosted twelve tutorials and eight invited talks as well as welcoming over 130 participants. All the conferences and workshops publish pre- or post-proceedings in the top journals and book series in the field.

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Elżbieta Kużelewska

References Aleksandrowicz, M. 2011. ’Multilingualism of Switzerland - Selected Legal Problems.’ Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric, 26 (39): 105-113. Bächtiger, A., Steiner, J. 2004. ‘Switzerland.’ in U.M. Amoretti, N.G. Bermeo (eds.) Federalism and Territorial Cleavages, 27-54. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press. Barbour, S. 2010. ‘Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg: The Total Coincidence of Nations and Speech Communities?’ in S. Barbour, C. Carmichael (eds.) Language and Nationalism

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Paulina Kozanecka

International. Dajczak, W. 2012. The Nature of the Contract . Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM. Foster, N. 2013. Austrian Legal System and Laws . Routledge. Fu, J. 2013. Freedom of Contract in the EU and China. Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 8, 274. Gebhardt, I., and Schulz, T. 2003. Introduction to the German Civil Code. In I. Gebhardt, Y. Zhang, and R. Schröder (eds.), Comparative Analysis on the Chinese Contract Law (pp. 5–11). Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag GmbH. Han, S. 2012. A Snapshot of Chinese

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From Religion to Dialectics and Mathematics

Schleiermacher’s Theological Contribution to the Development of Modern Tensor Calculus in Grassmann’s Ausdehnungslehre

Wolfgang Achtner

Abstract

Hermann Grassmann is known to be the founder of modern vector and tensor calculus. Having as a theologian no formal education in mathematics at a university he got his basic ideas for this mathematical innovation at least to some extent from listening to Schleiermacher’s lectures on Dialectics and, together with his brother Robert, reading its publication in 1839. The paper shows how the idea of unity and various levels of reality first formulated in Schleiermacher’s talks about religion in 1799 were transformed by him into a philosophical system in his dialectics and then were picked up by Grassmann and operationalized in his philosophical-mathematical treatise on the extension theory (German: Ausdehnungslehre) in 1844.

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Anna Doliwa-Klepacka

Abstract

The principle of multilingualism in the legal system of the European Union is one of the key elements that guarantees, among others, the right of access to EU legislation. It is particularly important not only in the sphere of the direct application of the EU law, but also in the sphere of access to information during the lawmaking procedures at the EU institutions. A special case is, however, a stage of preparing a draft legislative proposal by the European Commission. The EU member states agree to limit the use of official language version to the working documents for “working” languages of the Commission, i.e. English, French and German. In practice, English and French are the most widely used languages for the working arrangements in the preparation of the draft legislation, mainly due to costs of the necessary translations and an effectiveness of this stage. This article presents a course of the stage of the drafting a legislative proposal by the Commission and illustrates the scope of work partly exempted from the obligation to ensure the full application of the principle of equivalence of all the official languages of the European Union.

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Cristina Corredor

) Gauker, C. (1997). Domain of Discourse. Mind 106, 1-32. Habermas, J. (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol. I: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, T. McCarthy (trans.). Boston: Beacon. [German, 1981] Habermas, J. (1990). Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. C. Lenhardt and S. W. Nicholsen (Trans.). Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. [German, 1983] Habermas, J. (1996). Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. W. Rehg (Trans.). Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press

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Aleksandra Matulewska

. 2007. Lingua Legis in Translation. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing House. Matulewska, A. 2013. Legilinguistic Translatology. A Parametric Approach to Legal Translation. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing House. Matulewska, A. 2013. Legilinguistic Translatology. A Parametric Approach to Legal Translation. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing House. Mokobi, E. M. 2015. Lingering Inequality in Inheritance Law: the Child Born Out Of Wedlock in Botswana. Anneke Meerkotter (ed