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Csomós György

, MA 39121 19 China Hong Kong 39032 20 China Hangzhou 39029 21 USA Los Angeles, CA 38740 22 Canada Toronto, ON 38497 23 Australia Sydney, NSW 37676 24 USA Chicago, IL 37560 25 Singapore Singapore 37523 26 USA Baltimore, MD 36528 27 Germany Berlin 36509 28 USA Philadelphia, PA 36117 29 China Chengdu 36032 30 USA Houston, TX 33869 31 USA Atlanta, GA 32564 32 Canada Montreal, PQ 31820 33 China Tianjin 31764

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Jielan Ding, Per Ahlgren, Liying Yang and Ting Yue

. Countries Number of publication fractions Rank Nature Science PNAS Nature Science PNAS USA 807.4 872.1 2,261.8 1 1 1 UK 208.8 159.8 259.1 2 2 2 Germany 93.2 87.2 195.5 3 3 3 P. R. China 61.1 46.9 169.9 6 6 4 France 65.5 49.8 129.3 5 4 6 Canada 49.7 48.3 116.7 7 5 7 Japan 31.4 42.6 139.4 10 7 5 Australia 68.8 41.0 73.8 4 8 8 Switzerland 48.6 38.3 64.2 8 9 10 Netherlands 34

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Ting Yue, Liying Yang, Per Ahlgren, Jielan Ding, Shuangqing Shi and Rainer Frietsch

level. Other studies have focused on the citation impact of disciplines at the country level, or compared citation impact and publication volume regarding individual disciplines (e.g. Kozlowski et al., 1999 ; King, 2004 ; Yue, 2008 ; Radosevic & Yoruk, 2014 ). Yang et al. (2012) investigated the disciplinary structures of the publication volume of the G7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom and United States) and the BRICS countries (Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa). The results showed that the two groups had different

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Il-Yeol Song and Yongjun Zhu

communicate with the elderly for any important messages via a smart phone. As illustrated in this example, an innovative application utilizes a fusion of multiple technologies. It is possible to create a new service or business by collecting data through IoT sensors, storing it in the Cloud, and analyzing it through artificial intelligence and big data analytics. A recent paradigm that explains the super-connected industry that fuses multiple technologies to manufacturing is termed the fourth Industrial Revolution, also called “IR 4.0” or “Industry 4.0.” The German

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Peiling Wang, Sukjin You, Rath Manasa and Dietmar Wolfram

affiliated with organizations in 107 countries. The top five countries ( Table 1 ) for the number of articles contributed, which include the USA, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada, are also the top contributing countries of articles that published full peer review histories. China and Germany switched order in ranking for the number of articles and the number of articles with published full review histories. The top five countries’ articles with full peer reviews are similar to the study of a post-publication OPR journal based in the United Kingdom, F1000Research , as

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Gunnar Sivertsen

researcher behavior: An analysis of the influence of the Norwegian Publication Indicator at the individual level. Research Evaluation, 25(4), 371–382. Bloch C. Schneider J. W. 2016 Performance-based funding models and researcher behavior: An analysis of the influence of the Norwegian Publication Indicator at the individual level Research Evaluation 25 4 371 382 Chi, P. (2014). Which role do non-source items play in the social sciences? A case study in political science in Germany. Scientometrics, 101(2), 1195–1213. 10.1007/s11192-014-1433-1 Chi P

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Frederik T. Verleysen and Arie Weeren

.T. Verleysen (see also acknowledgements). The research framework was conceived by both authors. The programming in MATLAB®R2016a was carried out by A. Weeren ( Arie.Weeren@mathworks.nl ). F.T. Verleysen wrote and revised the final manuscript. References Chi, P.S. (2015). Changing publication and citation patterns in political science in Germany. Scientometrics, 105, 1833–1848. 10.1007/s11192-015-1609-3 Chi P.S. 2015 Changing publication and citation patterns in political science in Germany Scientometrics 105 1833 1848 Dunn, J.C. (1976). Indices of

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Lixue Zou, Li Wang, Yingqi Wu, Caroline Ma, Sunny Yu and Xiwen Liu

(excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, similarly hereinafter), United States, South Korea, Japan and India. They together accounted for 64.3 percent of the global total. The distribution of patent applicant countries was also analyzed where the top five countries are China, South Korea, United States, Japan and Germany. They together accounted for over 90 percent of the global patents in graphene. Figure 2 Country/region distribution in graphene R&D. 3.2.2 R&D distribution of top five countries by year Figure 3 gives the relative outputs of the top

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Yaoyao Song, Torben Schubert, Huihui Liu and Guoliang Yang

citations. On the one hand, increasing resources were invested in the Chinese science system since the 21st century. OECD (2018) shows that China’s Gross domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) in 2016 was ten times as much as that in 2000. Concretely, the GERD in China was USD 412 billion in 2016, compared to USD 464 billion in the United States, USD 104 billion in Germany, and USD 150 billion in Japan. Figure 1 shows the GERD of several countries from 2001 to 2016. On the other hand, the state has reorganized the Figure 1 GERD of several

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Chunqiu Li and Shigeo Sugimoto

provenance at feature and attribute level. In B. Ludäscher, & B. Plale (Eds.), Provenance and Anonotation of Data and Processes: 5th International Provenance and Annotation Workshop, IPAW 2014, Cologne, Germany, June 9–13, 2014 (pp.271–274). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Masó J. Closa G. Gil Y. 2015 Applying W3C PROV to express geospatial provenance at feature and attribute level Ludäscher B. Plale B. Provenance and Anonotation of Data and Processes: 5th International Provenance and Annotation Workshop, IPAW 2014, Cologne, Germany, June 9–13, 2014 271 274 Berlin