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Dynamics, Characteristics and Prospects of Consumer Spending in Albania

Abstract

In this paper analyzes the problem of the dynamics of income and expenditure of households in Albania. Analyzing costs in general, spending on food in particular, both connected with a range of other indicators of welfare, with per capita income, expenses for the basket of goods, according to its elements and structure. Survey basket expenditure according to regions of Albania. Analyzed per capita income, expenses basket compared with countries in the region, Europe and the world. The goal is: to extract an accurate conclusion, the place at which ranks Albania in these indicators. What to do in the future, in order to emerge from this negative situation. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are: Albania ranks last places of the world, the indicator of per capita income and expenditure of households. Ranked in first countries in the region and in Europe for the indication of the percentage of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks to the total cost of items in the basket. This situation has come as a result of lower rates of growth of its economy. It recommended changes in the structure of GDP in terms of growth of light industry and food industry extraction and processing, etc. By developing these branches will grow faster GDP and national income, and consequently will increase per capita income. Methods used are: methods of analysis and synthesis, methods of description and comparison, statistical methods etc.

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Impact of Official Development Assistance on the Growth of WAEMU Member Countries: Assessment Following the Recommendations of the 2002 Monterrey Conference

Abstract

This paper evaluates the impact of official development assistance on the growth of WAEMU countries using an econometric approach. This assessment heeds the recommendation of the 2002 Monterrey Conference that diversification of development support resources is needed. The results obtained indicate that the total net public assistance received has a positive and significant impact in the short and long term on the growth of WAEMU countries. By diversifying the development support resources of the zone, the minimum threshold of official development assistance needed to boost the growth of the countries of the zone is 13.5% of GDP per capita.

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Financial Inclusion in Latin America 2007 - 2015: Evidence using Panel Data Analysis

Abstract

Financial Inclusion plays an important role in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction owing to inequality, therefore, it is a key aspect of public policy in many governments. This study explores those variables that influence financial inclusion in some Latin American countries, through the use of the panel data econometric technique, based on information provided by the World Bank's Global Findex, and the Statistical Yearbook of the World Bank. ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America), during the period between 2007 and 2015. The sample includes 7 countries, namely, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru. The results indicate that financial inclusion has a positive and significant relationship with the value of GDP per capita, such that the greater the income level which families have, the greater will be the participation in the financial system, and consequently, the greater the degree of financial inclusion. On the other hand, the variable public debt, shows that a high level of indebtedness hinders financial inclusion, therefore, its relationship is negative.

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Energy Consumption Modeling in the Western Balkan Countries Using a Top-Down Approach

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationships between energy consumption and GDP growth for 6 Western Balkan countries over 10 years period from 2005 to 2014. The countries under consideration are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, FYR. The aim of this study is to evaluate the energy demand across time and within these countries. The other variables that are considered in the model are the Electricity use per capita, the Oil price referred to Crude Oil International markets price expressed in USD and the exchange rate. Recently, numerous empirical studies have been conducted to detect this relationship, but not specifically to the Western Balkan region. There are general characteristics, due to the common historical background, but also specific patterns of the economic structure shaping the energy demand of each country. The main approaches to energy demand modeling are the Bottom-up and Top Down approaches. Currently important research is conveying also toward the Hybrid models. The demand in this countries is very susceptible to external oscillations, leading to severe exogenous impacts on the long term equilibrium, fitting more towards a top down macroeconometric model.

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Autonomous Generated Income of Three Levels of Government and Money Supply in a Democratic Administration: The Case Study of Nigeria

: 10.22367/jem.2018.31.01 Haslag, J.H. (1996). The monetary policy effects on Seignorage revenue in a simple growth model. Research Department Working Paper 96 – 01. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas’ Historical Library. Hussain, M.E. & Haque, M. (2017). Empirical analysis of the relationship between money supply and per capita GDP growth rate in Bangladesh. Journal of Advances in Economics and Finance, 2(1), 54-66. DOI: 10.22606/jaef.2017.21005. Ihsan, I. & Anjum, S. (2013). Impact of money supply (M2) on GDP of Pakistan. Global Journal of

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Foreign Direct Investment Inflows into Zimbabwe

(nominal) per capita. The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/list-of-countries by GDP (nominal)-per-capita. retrieved 14 April 2017 time 15.38 World Bank (2013).Zimbabwe Overview. Retrieved on 12 August, 2015 from World Bank website: http://www.world-bank.org/en/country/Zimbabwe/overview.

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Evaluation of Eu Cohesion Policy Impact on Regional Convergence: Do Culture Differences Matter?

Allanheld. Piore, M.J. & Sabel, Ch.F. (1984). The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books. Prochniak, M. & Witkowski, B. (2015). Does beta convergence imply stochastic convergence of GDP per capita levels between countries? Empirical evidence. 20th International Academic Conference Proceedings, 382. Ramajo J., Marquez M., Hewings G. & Salinas M. (2008). Spatial heterogeneity and interregional spillovers in the European Union: do cohesion policies encourage convergence across regions? European Economic Review, (52

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Insights on Sustainable Universities from Economic and Statistical Perspectives

energy security. A paper by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy. September 2014. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/informat/2014/cp_investments_energy2014_2020.pdf European Union Regional Policy. (2011). Connecting Universities to Regional Growth. Smart Specialization Platform. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/presenta/universities2011/universities2011_en.pdf Eurostat. (2019). “GDP per capita in PPS.” Retrieved from https

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