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Quantitative Assessment of the Dynamics of Changes in the GDP Per Capita Index in the Regions of Bulgaria and Slovakia

References/Literatura: 1. Lewandowski, K. (2011). Ocena polityki regionalnej Unii Europejskiej w świetle badań empirycznych. Gospodarka w teorii i praktyce, 2 (29), 53-64. 2. Łaźniewska, E., Górecki, T., Chmielewski, R. (2011). Konwergencja regionalna . Poznań: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu. 3. Puga, D. (2001). European Regional Policies in Light of Recent Location Theories. CEPR Discussion Paper Series , 2767, 14-15. 4. Surówka, A., Prędka, P. (2016). PKB per capita jako wyznacznik rozwoju ekonomicznego regionów

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Do Transition Countries Converge towards the European Union?

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyze if the Western Balkan and Eastern Partnership countries converge towards the twenty-eight members of the European Union. The relationships between the selected macroeconomic variables and per capita GDP growth rate are econometrically tested to support this research. The analyzed period is 2004–2017, with two sub-periods: 2004–2008 and 2009–2013. The subdivision is made to test whether the recent financial crisis affected the absolute and conditional convergence process in the analyzed group of countries. The empirical findings support the economic convergence hypothesis. The results show that the recent financial crisis negatively affected the absolute and conditional convergence process, when economic variables are included in the analysis. The negative effects of the crisis on conditional convergence with economic and socio-political variables are not identified. The poorer countries in the analyzed group should do more to attract investment and open their economies, as gross fixed capital formation and economic openness have a positive impact on per capita growth, and keep low inflation or stabilize it, while general government debt and unemployment should be decreased in the examined sample of countries.

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Methodological Background of Post-Soviet Regionalism: The Case of Ukraine

Abstract

The transformational 1990s significantly differentiated the regional model of Ukraine, which eventually began to resemble a system of uncontrolled chronic economic decline, as the existing planning and regulatory methods had become redundant, the market-based approaches being not actualized. The methodological vacuum in which Ukraine found itself did not allow regions to solve the existing problems by means of European economic convergence instruments. Despite the fact that more and more theories and concepts appeared in the leading developed countries (regional competitiveness, city- region, beautiful places, creative city, localization, etc.), national science used outdated ideas of planned regulation, inappropriate in market economy. The effect of government policies resembled core measures of the neoliberal model, while maintaining a high degree of administrative centralization.

FDI inflow fundamentally altered the regional landscape. The leading position in accumulating the FDI stock belonged to Kyiv, which also produced the largest per capita GDP. In the last five years a revival of innovation activity took place in the Ukrainian regions. Eventually it obtained an undulating character, moving basically along two axes: Lviv-Kviv and Kyiv-Kharkiv. However, low FDI level in the worst performing regions could create an erroneous impression about the positive impact of FDI on regional economy.

A region's development trajectory> might also be affected by the mentality of its inhabitants, as well as the media, whose impact can convey either a cohesive or disintegrating character. This was evidenced by the recent events in Ukraine, as well as the "East versus West” confrontation, which resulted in frustration, whereas the lack of tolerance among the population of certain regions provoked the bloodshed. Thus, identification of methodological background of post-Soviet regionalism on the example of Ukraine is an important scientific task, which may explain the essence of regional asymmetries in the post-Soviet states.

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Assessment of the Environmental Tax System in Latvia

. 2011. “Th e Eff ect of Carbon Tax on per Capita CO2 Emissions.” Energy Policy 39, 5137 - 5146. Loganathan, N., M. Shahbaz and R. Taha. 2014. “Th e Link between Green Taxation and Economic Growth on CO2 Emissions: Fresh Evidence from Malaysia.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 38, 1083 - 1091. Markandya, A. 2005. Environmental Fiscal Reform: What Should be Done and How to Achieve It. Washington, DC: World Bank. Metcalf, G. E. and D. Weisbach. 2009. “Th e Design of a Carbon Tax.” Harvard Environmental Law Review

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The Number and Geographical Scope of the EU Foreign Policy Initiatives of Small Member States: Does „smallness“ matter?

International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tps00001&plugin=1(accessed 28 May 2014) http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/ (accessed 29 September 2014) http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/GDP_per_capita,_consumption_per_capita_and_price_level_indices#Further_Eurostat_information (accessed 29 September 2014) http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=SNA_TABLE1

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Measurability of Social Development. Reflections on the Applicability of Social Progress Indices with Reference to Brexit

Abstract

The question is how the global and local economic actors’ innovation-based local social and environmental objectives and results can modify the social cohesion strategies, how the disparities in economic and social development can be measured and evaluated at regional level in addition to a comparison across countries. We have seen that any one indicator in itself is not enough since it does not provide sufficient explanation for either the development disparities or their reasons. Anyway, in addition to GDP per capita, it is worth applying - and it is important to apply - such indicators as SPI and Well-Being, and various indices of social progress.

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International economics: security of economic system and transboundary crisis

.I., Transfer ekonomIchnih kriz yak prichina nedoskonalih tsikliv//StrategIchna panorama. – №2. – 2004. – p. 68–84. GDP per capita, PPP (current international, $) http://data.world-bank.org/indicator/NY.GDP . PCAP. PP. CD Рассчитано по данным Academic Departments, College of Arts and Sciences, University at Buffalo, www.pluto.fss.buffalo.edu Kondratev N.D., Osnovnyie problemyi ekonomicheskoy statiki i dinamiki. Predvaritelnyiy eskiz. M.: Nauka, 1991, p. 220–241. Yakovets Yu.V., Epohalnyie innovatsii HHI veka/Yu.V. Yakovets; Mezhdunar. In-t P. Sorokina – N

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Sports Diplomacy of Norway

Sports Diplomacy, Embassy of the United States in Oslo. August 2011. Web. 1 June 2015, <http://norway.usembassy.gov/norwaycup2011.html>. World GDP (nominal) per capita Ranking 2015. 27 April 2015. Web. 15 June 2015, <http://statisticstimes.com/economy/world-gdp-capita-ranking.php>. Youth Olympic Games. 2015. Web. 16.06.2015, <http://lillehammer2016.com/yog/>. Abend, L., Why Nobody Wants to Host the 2022 Winter Olympics. “Time”. 3 October 2014. Web. 16 May 2015, <http://time.com/3462070/olympics-winter-2022

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Economic Growth and Investment Activity as Basic Elements and Indicators of Economic Security and Their Relationship with National and International Security

Abstract

The economic potential of a country is directly related to a policy of creating new jobs, increasing labour productivity, balancing energy and materials consumption, technological innovation, refurbishing the production base, and taking action to create an environment for attracting investment and stimulating domestic consumption, as well as increasing exports of goods and services. A key feature of the economic system, that determines its ability to maintain normal living and working conditions for the population, is to guarantee and protect the sustainable development of the economy and the realisation of national economic interests. This article is addressed to two main economic security indicators - economic growth and investment activity of the state. It presents a specific comparison of real GDP per capita and growth rate in the European Union, the Eurozone and the Republic of Bulgaria and GDP per capita in purchasing power standards in the European Union, the Eurozone and the Republic of Bulgaria. The flow of foreign direct investment by economic sectors in the Republic of Bulgaria is been considered, including annual data, foreign direct investment flows by countries and the international position of the Republic of Bulgaria in this process

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The “New Cold Warriors” and the “Pragmatics”: The Differences in Foreign Policy Attitudes towards Russia and the Eastern Partnership States among the NATO Member States from Central and South-Eastern Europe

Ukraine-Krise. Zeitschrift für Außen-und Sicherheitspolitik, 7: 431-440. Trading Economics, 2017. Albania’s unemployment rate. [online]. Available at: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/albania/unemploymentrate (Accessed 24 July 2016). Wolff, A. T., 2015. The future of NATO enlargement after the Ukraine crisis. International Affairs, 91(5): 1103-1121. World Bank, 2017. GDP per capita (current US$). [online]. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD (Accessed 11 July 2017).

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