Factors Which Influence the Growth of Creative Industries: Cross-section Analysis in China
With the more and more important roles of creative economy, its research has become one of the major fields in economic development. The creative economy has the potential to generate income and jobs while promoting social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. As a developing country, China is also in need of developing the creative economy to adjust the economic structure and realize the sustainable development. In this paper, we examined the factors which influence the growth of creative industries in China through the cross-section analysis of 23 regional data in 2007. Four main factors were examined in this multi-regression model, that is, GDP per capita, the number of higher education institutions, the number of students enrolled in higher education institution and the number of patents.
The statistical analysis found that the model's fit is quite good and 69% of dependent variable (the ratio of value-added of creative industries to the GDP) is explained by the model. Specifically, there are three sub-conclusions. Firstly, there is not a positive relationship between GDP per capita and dependent variable; on the contrary, there is a weak negative relationship in this model. We infer that it is because of the stage of economic development. China heavily depends on the development of the second industry in the process of industrializing. Secondly, there is no linear relationship, in this model, between the number of higher education institutions and the dependent variable. We infer that it is mainly due to the differences between the higher education institutions, such as scales and qualities, etc. Thirdly, there is enough evidence to conclude that the number of students enrolled in higher education institution and the dependent variable are linearly related; the number of patents and the ratio of creative industries are linearly related, as well. They represent the important roles of talents and technology in the development of creative industries.
In this paper analyzes the problem of the dynamics of income and expenditure of households in Albania. Analyzing costs in general, spending on food in particular, both connected with a range of other indicators of welfare, with per capita income, expenses for the basket of goods, according to its elements and structure. Survey basket expenditure according to regions of Albania. Analyzed per capita income, expenses basket compared with countries in the region, Europe and the world. The goal is: to extract an accurate conclusion, the place at which ranks Albania in these indicators. What to do in the future, in order to emerge from this negative situation. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are: Albania ranks last places of the world, the indicator of per capita income and expenditure of households. Ranked in first countries in the region and in Europe for the indication of the percentage of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks to the total cost of items in the basket. This situation has come as a result of lower rates of growth of its economy. It recommended changes in the structure of GDP in terms of growth of light industry and food industry extraction and processing, etc. By developing these branches will grow faster GDP and national income, and consequently will increase per capita income. Methods used are: methods of analysis and synthesis, methods of description and comparison, statistical methods etc.
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The main aim of this paper is to present the concept of regional distance as a measure of economic diversity at the regional level. Additionally, the paper is devoted to the identification of regional inequalities in Poland, based on the metric presented. Estimates of the regional distance between specific regions (NUTS 2) and the mean level of development of the national economy or Mazowieckie Voivodship (the region with the highest GDP per capita in Poland) were based on calculations conducted using logarithmic equations. Two different distances were calculated: (a) the mean number of years required to achieve the present reference area level of development, (b) the mean number of years necessary to achieve the reference area GDP per capita, taking into consideration the growth rate of the reference area. The empirical example of regional distance application revealed significant inequalities between regions of Poland at NUTS 2 level.
Socio-economic potential of Polish cities - a regional dimension
The main aim of the research presented in this paper was to construct and evaluate a synthetic index of socio-economic potential of Polish cities (IoEp) at the level of voivodships and also to examine relations between this potential and the economic development of regions. The index reflects the level of localisation advantages offered by a city. That is why an assumption was made that there is a positive relationship between the level of socio-economic potential of cities in a region (measured by the IoEP index) and its level of economic development. The obtained results show that there are significant and stable differences in the level of economic potential of Polish cities. One can also observe that the higher the level of IoEP was, the higher the value of regional GDP per capita. That gives some basis to positively verify the research hypothesis.
This paper aims to analyse Spanish tourism policy and its relation to a series of facts. The research combines an extensive review of the existing studies into the aspects of tourism policy linked to government, geography and economy with an examination of statistical sources. The main issues and findings analysed in this study are highlighted below. Firstly, the evolution of tourism policy of Spain in the last 60 years in relation to the process of national economic development is analysed. Secondly, a limited role of tourism on economic and territorial balance as well as changes in the regional distribution in the supply of hotel accommodation is highlighted. Thirdly, territorial changes related to the supply of hotel accommodation and GDP per capita are discussed. Finally, certain topics are suggested for future debate: tourism and imbalance as well as tourism and development.
In this paper, we used the panel smooth transition model (PSTR) to study the nonlinear relationship between sulfur dioxide emissions and economic growth in the three regions of China’s eastern, middle and western regions, based on panel data from 31 provinces and autonomous regions in China from 2005 to 2017. And calculated the elasticity of the impact of total export-import volume and urbanization rate on emissions. The empirical results indicate that economic development and sulfur dioxide emissions are positively correlated in the three regions of East, Middle and West. In the eastern region, when the economic scale is lower than the threshold value, it has a negative impact on SO2 emissions; but when it is higher than the threshold value, it has a positive impact on SO2 emissions, and the smoothing rate between the two regime is slow. The per capita GDP in the middle and western regions is weakly positively correlated with SO2 emissions. When the economic scale reaches the threshold value, its positive impact on SO2 emissions will increase, and economic development will further increase emissions.
Adam Senetra, Agnieszka Szczepańska and Monika Wasilewicz-Pszczółkowska
The development of housing, services and industry as well as the accompanying infrastructure leads to the intensification of urbanisation processes and changes in land use structure. The area of land characterised by urban use is increasing. The above trend is also observed in Eastern Poland despite its predominantly rural character and the absence of metropolitan areas exerting great pressure on the local landscape, contributing to regional development and enhancing the region’s competitiveness. The paper discusses changes in land use structure in developed and urban areas in Eastern Poland. The analysis includes five Polish voivodeships (Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie) characterised by the lowest GDP per capita in the EU-25. For this reason, Eastern Poland will receive aid as part of the ‘Development of Eastern Poland’ Operational Program 2007-2013. This is the only supra-regional program in the European Union which promotes social and economic growth in underdeveloped regions by co-financing projects in urban development, road construction and tourism promotion. The analysis of changes in the share of developed and urban areas in total land area as well as changes in local land use structure (subgroups) covers the period of 2007-2013. The data relating to land use structure was supplied by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. It was used to determine the scale and rate of urbanisation in the analysed voivodeships (regions) and their constituent poviats (counties) with special emphasis on suburban areas. The results were presented in the form of cartograms and thematic maps with the use of GIS tools. The GIS tools support the visualisation of the spatial distribution of the analysed phenomena.