Attasit Srisubat, Jiruth Sriratanaban, Sureerat Ngamkiatphaisan and Kriang Tungsanga
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Valentina Prevolnik Rupel, Renata Erker and Marko Divjak
/benefits for the patients, but with careful consideration and only in absolute need. This also contributes to the prevention of the overuse of ICDs, which might have considerate negative impacts on health and life-quality if decisions are not in line with professional standards.
To sum up, it can be concluded that economic development (e.g. measured in GDPpercapita) to a certain extent predicts the crude utilisation rates of CIEDs; however, the size of the effect is hard to identify as the available data in HD database is incomplete and unreliable. Hence, we recommend
Yuwadee Leelukkanaveer, Pornchai Sithisarankul and Narin Hirunsutthikul
Background: Provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing (PIHIVCT) is an important intervention that improves the access to care to HIV-infected patients and subsequently contributes to the success of national HIV/AIDS control efforts. However, in Thailand, the cost-effectiveness of this program is unknown. Objective: Determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) in terms of Thai Baht per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) of PIHIVCT for outpatient department (OPD) patients in community hospitals of Thailand compared with the current practice. Methods: A model-based health economic evaluation study was conducted based on results from cluster randomized controlled trials in 16 community hospitals of Thailand. The Markov model and the probabilistic sensitivity analysis were used. One-thousand two-hundred seventy-seven HIV-infected patients completed questionnaires on their household expenditure and quality of life using the visual analog scale. Results: In social perspectives, the PIHIVCT program increased a patient’s life span by 5.18 days or 4.15 qualityadjusted days per OPD case and the ICER was 63,588 Baht per QALY gained. The subgroup analysis showed that the PIHIVCT program would be cost-effective for cases younger than 50 years if the ceiling threshold of willing to pay equaled the per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, this intervention would be cost-effective for all cases of 13-64 year old if the ceiling threshold equaled three times of GDP. Conclusion: The provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing program for OPD patients is more cost-effective than the current practice and should be implemented in health care setting in Thailand.
Nurul Fatihah Azman, Wan-Zaidah Abdullah, Norsarwany Mohamad, Rosnah Bahar, Muhammad Farid Johan, R. Diana, Binti Hanafi Sarifah, Surini Yusoff, Ariffin Nasir, Azizah Othman, Surianti Sukeri, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Adil Hussein, Rozita Hassan, Padillah Yahya, Rosline Hassan and Bin Alwi Zilfalil
Malaysia consists of 2 parts: Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak states on the Island of Borneo. Peninsular Malaysia is located south of Thailand, north of Singapore, and east of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, while the 2 Borneo states share borders with Brunei and Indonesia. Malaysia has a multiethnic population with over 30 million in 2014 consisting of Malays (50.4%), Chinese (23.7%), Indians (7.1%), indigenous people (11%), and others (7.8%). The average Malaysian income based on the gross domestic product (GDP) percapita was about USD 12,127 in