Jan Gąska, Maciej Pyrka, Robert Jeszke, Wojciech Rabiega and Monika Sekuła
scenarios unchanged. However, we assumed an increase of the GHG emission reduction target in 2030 to 45% for the EU compared to 1990. For the EU ETS sectors, the new GHG’s emission reduction target in 2030 was set at the level of 48% compared to 2005 and for the non-ETS sectors at the level of 36% compared to 2005 . See Ingvild Sorhus (2018). To achieve the overall target in the non-ETS sectors, we determined individual binding targets for each EU Member State. The distribution of the reduction effort under non-ETS was estimated on the basis of GDPpercapita for 2013
Based on the indicator of GDP per capita and the plan of business environment improvement measures, the urgency of developing lifelong learning in Latvia is analysed. Changes in the educational level of residents and in the education of employed individuals and job seekers in the period 2006-2010 are researched. The experts’ evaluation of the lifelong learning development alternative in Latvia was carried out using Analytic Hierarchy Process. The conclusions indicate that primarily the establishment of the lifelong education system in companies (priority assessment vector 0.322) should be developed.
Based on the method of Compensated Successful Efforts, this paper proposes a structural variables model to assess pre-REDD+ (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation plus) policies; selecting economic development, population growth, initial forest area, agricultural commodity export prices, and timber prices as structural variables, and empirically analyzes 11 high-forest-growth countries’ policies from 1992 to 2011. Results show that the forest area growth rate was negatively correlated with the initial forest area and agricultural commodities export prices, and positively correlated with population density, GDP per capita, and timber export prices. China and India’s entity fixed effects are more significant; in different periods the rate of actual forest area growth exceeded that of structural forest area growth in 11 countries. Overall, Compensated Successful Efforts proved to be useful for evaluating the effects of the high forest area growth country policies. Regardless, these countries should join REDD+ organizations and continue enhancing their forest management and increasing forest area. As part of this effort, REDD+ negotiations should consider fully compensation mechanisms for these countries to attract more countries and promote the progress of international climate negotiations.
Daniel Kwabena Twerefou, Frank Adusah-Poku and William Bekoe
The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and economic growth. In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, there exist scanty studies that confirm or otherwise the EKC hypothesis with regards to CO2 emissions as well as the factors that drive CO2 emissions. This work aims to bridge this knowledge gap by addressing these two major questions using data from 1970 to 2010 and the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Testing approach. The results rather suggest a U-shaped relationship between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions per capita indicating the non-existence of the EKC hypothesis for CO2 in Ghana. This implies that further increase in per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will only be associated with increase in CO2 emissions as the income per capita turning point of about $624 at constant 2000 prices occurred between 1996 and 1997. Furthermore, our results reveal energy consumption and trade openness are positive long run drivers of CO2 emissions. It is therefore recommended that the enhancement of trade liberalization policies should ensure the use of cleaner technologies and products while investment in cleaner energy alternatives could help reduce CO2 emissions. We also recommend the implementation of the Low Carbon Development Strategy which integrates development and climate change mitigation actions.