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Eliminating the secondary earner bias. Policy lessons from the introduction of partial individual taxation in Sweden in 1971

as the contemporary circumstances have changed in relation to history (cf. Crafts 2013 , 277-78). It is therefore necessary to recognize that some political and economic structures in Sweden during the examined time period were rather unique. It is quite rare that one party enjoys such electoral support that it single-handedly can dictate domestic policy as the Social Democrats could in 1970. In this regard, it should also be noted that in 1970, Sweden was the fourth richest country in the OECD based on the GDP/capita indicator, which meant that this government

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Colonial Bureaucrats, Institutional Transplants, and Development in the 20th Century

presence of overseas officers and the quality of future civil services. The longer former colonial officers were available after a country’s independence, the more effective its government. In other words, a country which kept a high share of overseas officers in the administration for an extended period of time at independence had a more effective government in 1996. The ranking is reflected in the wealth of the countries. Botswana leads the group with roughly USD 15,800 GDP (PPP) per capita in 2016. Sierra Leone trails it with about USD 1,600 GDP (PPP) per capita

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