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The role of entrepreneurship in explaining the real Gross Domestic Product per capita: Regression model selection

and GDP per capita. In Bendekovic, M., Klacmer Calopa, M. and Filipovic, D. (Eds.) “Economic and Social Development”, Book of Proceedings of the 6th International Scientific Conference on Economic and Social Development and 3rd Eastern European ESD Conference: Business Continuity, Vienna, 25-25 April 2014.Varazdin, Croatia: Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency. ISBN: 978-953-6125-10-4. pp. 507-516. 16. Harris, R. (1995). Using Cointegration Analysis in Econometrics Modelling. Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf, Upper Saddle River

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The Marginal Benefit of an Active Labor Market Program Relative to a Public Works Program: Evidence from Papua New Guinea

(NSO, 2013; Jones and McGavin, 2015 ). There are large skill shortages in a variety of trades, such as carpentry, hospitality, retail, and office administration ( Imbun, 2015 ). In addition, the cost of labor is quite high as the minimum wage was around 1.22 United States Dollars (USD) per hour in 2018, which is the same as countries with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita four times that of PNG (such as Malaysia) ( Jones and McGavin, 2015 ). Despite the large skill shortages, there are few opportunities for youth to enter the formal sector labor market in

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Economics of Artificial Intelligence: Implications for the Future of Work

leading economies from a long-term perspective, a deceleration in productivity growth can be detected, despite a short-lived acceleration during the 1990s ( Fig. 2 ). This is also reflected in similar developments of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (i.e., including the inactive population) that show a remarkable absence of accelerating improvements in living standards. This observation had already perplexed economists during the 1980s when Robert Solow famously stated that “you can see the computer age everywhere but in the productivity statistics” ( David, 1990

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Testing the validity of the Linder hypothesis for Croatia

2018]. 29. World Bank (2018a). GDP per capita (Current US$). Available at https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD [01 May 2018]. 30. World Bank (2018b). World Integrated Trade Solution. Available at https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/HRV/StartYear/2000/EndYear/2016/TradeFlow/Import/Partner/ALL/Indicator/MPRT-TRD-VL [01 May 2018].

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Economic Crises and Emission of Pollutants: A Historical Review of Select Economies Amid Two Economic Recessions

Abstract

This paper investigates the historical trends in economic development through the impact of economic depressions and emissions of greenhouse gasses, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). The analysis includes four countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. The focus, therefore, will be on the impact of two economic crises and their effect on global warming. Temperature changes in the longer period are very often regarded as a result of human activity, which can be measured by the increase of GDP (per capita). The findings indicate that GDP (per capita) parameters cannot be considered as correct measures of human pollution activity. The results show that the long-run temperature can be evaluated with the help of annual average temperatures of the previous four years. The proposed model does not only provide quite satisfactory forecasts, but is very stable with coefficients variables that can make a model more reliable for practice.

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Macroeconomic effects of the budget deficit in the Republic of Macedonia

(% of GDP) . Available at https://www.finance.gov.mk/en/node/2678 [10 May 2018]. 15. Nayab, H. (2015). The Relationship between Budget Deficit and Economic Growth of Pakistan. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development , Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 85-90. 16. Saleh, A. S. (2003). The Budget Deficit and Economic Performance: A Survey. Department of Economics, University of Wollongong , Working Paper 03-12, pp. 1-56. Available at http://ro.uow.edu.au/commwkpapers/78 [10 May 2018]. 17. National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia (2017). Basic

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Exogenous vs Endogenous Growth in the EU’s EaP and Central Asian Countries

Ladders in the Theory of Growth. The Review of Economic Studies, 58(1), 43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2298044 Guloglu, B., and Tekin, R. B., 2012. A Panel Casuality Analysis of the Relationship among Research and Development, Innovation, and Economic Growth in High-Income OECD Countries. 2(1), 32-47. Hall, R., and Jones, C., 1999. Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1), 83-116. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/003355399555954 Hanushek, E

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Determinants of Shadow Economy in Eastern European Countries

Abstract

In this article the relationship between shadow economy and its’ determinants has been examined. Ten Eastern countries from European Union were chosen due to specific particularities, which may cause higher shadow economy levels in the investigated countries compared with the EU average. Time span of 2003-2016 was selected, as 2017 data has yet to be released at the time of the analysis. Article consists of examination of the current situation and shadow economy trends in Eastern European countries; overview of shadow economy scientific literature followed by hypothesis, which are examined by constructing regression models. Models aim to distinguish the relationship between selected determinants and shadow economy size. Scientific literature analysis revealed that increase of tax burden on labor is seen as a primary reason for the increase of shadow economy, however, such relation has not been identified. Furthermore, results show that unemployment and self-employed people ratio affect shadow economy insignificantly. This suggests that further analysis is needed. Nonetheless, regression model has not rejected the hypotheses of corruption level, income inequality, business freedom and GDP per capita effect on shadow economy. Thus, it can be stated that these variables are determinants of shadow economy in Eastern European countries.

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Process of ranking countries by level of development

References 1. Cracolici, M. F., Cuffaro, M., Nijkamp, P. (2010). The Measurement of Economic, Social and Environmental Performance of Countries: A Novel Approach. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 95, No. 2, pp. 339-356. 2. Eurostat (2018a). Eurostatistics - Data for short term economic analysis - Issue No 6/2018. Available at http:// http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/3217494/8985191/KS-BJ-18-006-EN-N.pdf [24 March 2018]. 3. Eurostat (2018b). GDP per capita in PPS. Available at http

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Indicators of sustainable development performance: Case study of European Union countries

on the Benefit-of-the-Doubt model: The case of QS World University Rankings by Subject. Croatian Review of Economic, Business and Social Statistics, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 1-14. 20. Markusen, J. (2013). Putting per-capita income back into trade theory. Journal of International Economics, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 255-265. 21. Milenkovic, N., Vukmirovic, J., Bulajic, M., Radojicic, Z. (2014). A multivariate approach in measuring socio-economic development of MENA countries. Economic Modelling, Vol. 38, pp. 604-608. 22. Popović B

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