Esteban Fernández Tuesta, Carlos Garcia-Zorita, Rosario Romera Ayllon and Elías Sanz-Casado
differences and the country/region where the university is located ( Bornmann & Moya-Anegón, 2011 ). A final issue addressed by these authors was whether inter-university differences could be explained by economic factors (PerCapita Gross Domestic Product (GDP PC), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a country/region’s total area and population) or by the number of papers published by a given university.
Marginson (2007) used statistical methodology to compare each country/region’s economic status, calculated as GDP and GDPpercapita, to the number of its universities in the
observed linear or exponential correlation between scientometric indicators (e.g., the number of publications) and economic development indicators (e.g., GDPpercapita or income percapita) ( de Solla Price 1978 ; Kealey 1996 ; King 2004 ), while others assert that the correlation between these different sets of indicators is far from clear (Lee at al. 2011; Meo et al. 2013 ; Vinkler 2008 ; Vinkler 2010 ). It is, however, more commonly accepted that the higher the GDPpercapita or the income level of a country is, the more likely it is that a greater number of
for academic promotion may have triggered this increase, as more than 90% of research in Turkey has been carried out in universities, and the number of academic personnel in universities has increased tremendously over the years. Moreover, in addition to the number of research personnel in universities, the number of papers may be increasing due to a number of other factors such as the number of researchers per 10,000 capita, and the share of R&D expenditures within the Gross National Product (GDP). As indicated earlier, even though some positive correlation between