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Frank J. Nugent, Thomas M. Comyns and Giles D. Warrington

Abstract

The debate over low-volume, high-intensity training versus high-volume, low-intensity training, commonly known as Quality versus Quantity, respectively, is a frequent topic of discussion among swimming coaches and academics. The aim of this study was to explore expert coaches’ perceptions of quality and quantity coaching philosophies in competitive swimming and to investigate their current training practices. A purposeful sample of 11 expert swimming coaches was recruited for this study. The study was a mixed methods design and involved each coach participating in 1 semi-structured interview and completing 1 closed-ended questionnaire. The main findings of this study were that coaches felt quality training programmes would lead to short term results for youth swimmers, but were in many cases more appropriate for senior swimmers. The coaches suggested that quantity training programmes built an aerobic base for youth swimmers, promoted technical development through a focus on slower swimming and helped to enhance recovery from training or competition. However, the coaches continuously suggested that quantity training programmes must be performed with good technique and they felt this was a misunderstood element. This study was a critical step towards gaining a richer and broader understanding on the debate over Quality versus Quantity training from an expert swimming coaches’ perspective which was not currently available in the research literature.

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Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Thomas Hilberg, Jürgen Freiwald and Udo Frank Wehmeier

Abstract

This study aimed to describe the acute changes of both standard physiological-perceptual markers and circulating microRNAs in response to tennis match-play in a detailed case report. Two elite male baseliners with comparable tennis experience were tested for anthropometric and fitness related variables and played 2 h of match-play on a red-clay court. The changes of standard physiological-perceptual markers including the heart rate, lactate concertation, creatine kinase activity, urea concentration and rating of perceived exertion as well as circulating microRNA-133a, -486 and -126 expression rates were examined at 10 different time-points (i.e., pre, during and up to 24 h post match-play). Player 2 had lower fitness related variables, but a higher heart rate, lactate concentration, creatine kinase activity and rating of perceived exertion during play than player 1. Player 2 showed an increase in all microRNAs (≤3.83-fold), most evident post match-play, whereas player 1 demonstrated a decrease (≤0.41-fold). The time-course in the changes of all standard physiological-perceptual markers was similar in both players, whereas this of the microRNAs was different. It was concluded that the relative changes of the circulating microRNA-133a, -486 and 126 expression rates of both players differed in response to tennis match-play with respect to the experienced physiological-perceptual stress and the underlying fitness level. Therefore, circulating microRNAs can serve as additional biomarkers for tennis exercise physiology and may be assessed together with standard markers to conclude whether key cellular regulatory processes were induced in response to match-play.

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Agnieszka Stępień, Sylwia Chładzińska-Kiejna and Katarzyna Salamon-Krakowska

References [1] Pużyński S., Wciórka J. [eds.], Klasyfi kacja zaburzeń psychicznych i zaburzeń zachowania w ICD-10. Opisy kliniczne i wskazówki diagnostyczne. Uniwersyteckie Wydawnictwo Medyczne „Vesalius“, Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Kraków-Warszawa 2007. [2] McWilliams N., Diagnoza psychoanalityczna. Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, Gdańsk 2009. [3] Widiger T.A., Costa P.T. Jr, Personality and personality disorders. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 1994, 103 (1), 78-91. [4] Zweig-Frank H., Paris

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Jan Dygryn, Josef Mitas and Jiri Stelzer

References Abu-Omar K, Rütten A. Relation of leisure time, occupational, domestic, and commuting physical activity to health indicators in Europe. Prev Med, 2008. 47: 319-323 Badland HM, Duncan MJ, Mummery WK. Travel perceptions, behaviors, and environment by degree of urbanization. Prev Med, 2008. 47: 265-269 Cerin E, Leslie E, DuToit K, Owen N, & Frank LD. Destinations that matter: associations with walking for transport. Health Place, 2007. 13

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Salomé Marivoet

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Marc Taylor and Carlos Lago Peñas

, Bartlett R. The use of performance indicators in performance analysis. J Sport Sci, 2002; 20: 739-754 Hughes M, Bartlett R. What is performance analysis, In. M Hughes IM. Frank (eds.), The essentials of performance analysis: An introduction , London: Routledge 8-20; 2008 Hughes M, Franks IM. Analysis of passing sequences, shots and goals in soccer. J Sports Sci , 2005; 23: 509-514 Kannekens R, Elferinks-Gemser T, Visscher C. Positioning and deciding: Key factors for talent development in soccer. Scand J Med Sci Spor

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Pantelis Nikolaidis, Gal Ziv, Ronnie Lidor and Michal Arnon

soccer players. J Sport Sci, 1992; 10: 541-547 Essendrop M, Schibye B, Hansen K. Reliability of isometric muscle strength tests for the trunk, hands and shoulders. Int J Ind Ergonom, 2001; 28: 379-387 Franks AM, Williams AM, Reilly T, Nevill A. Talent identification in elite youth soccer players: Physical and physiological characteristics. Communication to the 4th World Congress on Science and Football, Sydney. J Sport Sci, 1999; 17: 812 Gabbe BJ, Bennell KL, Wajswelner H, Finch CF. Reliability of common lower extremity

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Joaquin Lago-Ballesteros and Carlos Lago-Peñas

soccer teams. In A Hökelmann, K White, P O'Donoghue (eds): Current trends in performance analysis. World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sports VIII. Magdebourg: Shaker Verlag, 2009, pp 50-51. Grant H, Williams A, Reilly T. Analysis of the goals scored in the 1998 World Cup. J Sports Sci, 1999; 17(10): 826-827. Hook C, Hughes M. (2001). Patterns of play leading to shots in Euro 2000. In M Hughes, I Franks (eds): Pass. Com. Cardiff: Center for Performance Analysis, UWIC, 2001, pp 295

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Carlos Lago-Peñas, Joaquín Lago-Ballesteros and Ezequiel Rey

de actividad física y deporte, 2009a. 8(15): 15-24. (In Spanish: English abstract). Gómez M, Álvaro J, Barriopedro MI. Differences in playing actions between men and women in elite soccer teams. In A Hökelmann, K White, P O Donoghue (eds): Current trends in performance analysis. World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sports VIII. Magdebourg: Shaker Verlag, 2009b, pp 50-51. Hook C, Hughes M. Patterns of play leading to shots in Euro 2000. In M Hughes, I Franks (eds): Pass. Com. Cardiff: Center for Performance

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Aleksandar Joksimović, Daniel Stanković, Dragan Ilić, Ivana Joksimović and Milorad Jerkan

biochemical characteristics of elite Yugoslav soccer players. Doctoral thesis, Medical faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade. 1-182. (In Serbian: English abstract) 2002. Philippaerts, R.M., Vaeyens, R., Janssens, M., Van Renterghem, B., Matthys, D., Craen, R., Bourgois, J., Vrijens, J., Beunen, G., Malina, R.M. The relationship between peak height velocity and physical performance in youth soccer players. J Sport Sci , 2006. 24: 221-230. Reilly, T., Williams, A.M., Nevill, A. and Franks, A. A multidisciplinary