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Sakunee Khankham, Leena Chularojanamontri, Chanisada Wongpraparut, Narumol Silpa-archa, Nuttaporn Janyong and Prin Vathesatogkit

Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become an important cause of death and comorbid disease among the general population. Several assessment tools have been developed to predict the 10-year risk of developing CAD and coronary death. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which was developed in 1998, is probably the most well-known [ 1 ]. The FRS is validated in the U.S. population and performs well when applied to other populations with a similarly high background risk of CAD. However, application of the FRS overestimated the risk of CAD in cohorts in Europe, Asia, and

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Carasca Cosmin, Muresan Vasile Adrian, Tilea Ioan, Magdas Annamaria, Carasca Emilian and Incze Alexandru

References 1. Murabito JM, D’Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, Wilson PWF. Intermittent Claudication - A Risk Profile From The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 1997;96:44-49. 2. Khan S, Flather M, Mister R et al. Characteristics and Treatments of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Referred to UK Vascular Clinics: Results of a Prospective Registry. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2007;33:4:442–450. 3. Bainton D, Sweetnam P, Baker I, Elwood P. Peripheral vascular disease: consequence for survival and association with

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Dragan Vasiljevic, Aleksandra Tomic-Lucic, Sandra Zivanovic, Mirjana Milosavljevic, Snezana Radovanovic, Nebojsa Andjelkovic, Dragan Djuric and Mirjana Veselinovic

- rheumatoid factor VAS - visual analogue score REFERENCES 1. Peters MJ, Symmons DP, McCarey D, Dijkmans BA, Nicola P et al. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010; 69(2): 312-325. 2. Martin-Martinez MA, Gonzalez-Juanatey C, Castaneda S, Llorca J, et al. Recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: scientific evidence and expert opinion. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014; 44(1): 1

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Ivo S. Petrov, Arman Sh. Postadzhiyan, Mariya P. Tokmakova, Lyudmila G. Kitova, Svetlin N. Tsonev, Janet Addison, Reneta T. Petkova and Vasil I. Lachev

, De Backer G, et al. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias: the Task Force for the management of dyslipidemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur Heart J 2011;32:1769-1818. 9. Conroy R, Pyorala K, Fitzgerald AP, et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003;24:987-1003. 10. D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study

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Tamara Nikolic, Ivan Srejovic, Isidora Stojic, Jovana Jeremic, Marko Folic, Stevan Matic, Milena Rakocevic, Snezana Jancic, Biljana Jakovljevic, Radmila Obrenovic, Dusan Djuric and Vladimir Zivkovic

;47:407–409. 5. Castelli WP. Cholesterol and lipids in the risk of coronary artery disease-the Framingham Heart study. Can J Cardiol. 1988;4:5–10 6. Hokanson JE, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor to cardio vascular disease independent of high density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta analysis of population based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1996;3:213–219. 7. Guerin M, Legoff W, Lassel TS, VanTol A, Steiner G, Chapman MJ. Proatherogenic role of elevated CE transfer from HDL to VLDL and dense LDL in type 2 diabetics. Arterioscler

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R. Gancheva, A. Kundurdjiev, T. Kundurdjiev and Zl. Kolarov

REFERENCES 1. Kim SY, Guevara JP, Kim KM, et al. Hyperuricemia and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009; 61:885-892. 2. Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Comorbidities of gout and hyper-uricemia in the US general population: NHANES 2007-2008. Am J Med. 2012; 125(7):679-687. 3. Lai HM, Chen CJ, Su BY, et al. Gout and type 2 diabetes have a mutual inter-dependent effect on genetic risk factors and higher incidences. Rheumatology 2012; 51(4):715-20. 4. Carnethon MR, Fortmann SP, Palaniappan L, et al. Risk

Open access

The sex-specific estimation of 10-year cardiovascular risk in individuals without cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has commonly used the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which was developed from a large, population-based prospective cohort in the US representing mainly the white population of European ancestry [ 1 , 2 ]. Other multivariate risk models, including a risk calculator released by the Joint British Societies (JBS) in 2014 [ 3 ], and later versions of Framingham risk model have been developed to predict coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease

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Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Abel Romero-Corral, Virend K. Somers, Justo Sierra-Johnson, Keith D. Lindor, Paul Angulo and Francisco Lopez-Jimenez

References 1. Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology. 2007; 45:846-54. 2. Church TS, Kuk JL, Ross R, Priest EL, Biltoft E, Blair SN. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and waist circumference to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 2023-30. 3. Park SH, Kim BI, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Park DI, Cho YK, et al. Body fat

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Muhammed Sait Toprak, Zeynep Gungor Ozturk, Ozlem Balci Ekmekci, Hakan Ekmekci, Baris Ikitimur, Bilgehan Karadag, Huseyin Altug Cakmak, Baris Ilerigelen and Huseyin Sonmez

intercellular adhesion molecule 1 are related in healthy subjects, and pointed out the risk of coronary heart disease [ 34 ]. Yeboah et al. showed that brachial FMD is a predictor of incident CV events in population-based adults, and that it improved the classification of individuals as low, intermediate, and high CVD risk compared with the Framingham Risk Score [ 35 ]. The contributions of biochemical endothelial markers to endothelium derived dilatation are difficult to define because their importance may vary lots of confounders. Determining endothelial function by

Open access

Marijan Bosevski

? Int J Cardiol. 2009 Jan 9;131(2):290-2. 12. Smink PA, Lambers Heerspink HJ, Gansevoort RT, de Jong PE, Hillege HL, Bakker SJ, de Zeeuw D. Albuminuria, estimated GFR, traditional risk factors, and incident cardiovascular disease: the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease) study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Nov;60(5):804-11 13. Chang A, Kramer H. Should eGFR and albuminuria be added to the Framingham risk score? Chronic kidney diseaseand cardiovascular disease risk prediction. Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;119(2):c171-7; 14. Dzekova